Grade 12 Biology
2009 Exam Review
Unit #1 – Metabolic Processes (~ 25%)
1. Atoms (composition) and elements (atomic mass and number)
2. Isotopes (radioisotopes)
3. Ions (cation and anion), Bohr-Rutherford diagrams (valence shell electrons)
4. Electronegativity, bonding patterns (covalent, ionic, polar covalent, hydrogen etc.), polarity and partial charges
5. Properties of water
6. Solubility of substances in water (hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic regions)
7. Acids, bases, and neutralization reactions
9. Composition of organic molecules
10. Types of isomers (structural, geometric, enantiomers)
11. Functional groups
12. Redox reactions
13. Condensation and hydrolysis reactions for all biological macromolecules
14. Types of macromolecules (structure and function) and bonding patterns [CHO, lipids, proteins (4 structures), nucleic acids]
15. Be able to identify the structural diagrams of the following molecules: amino acid, steroid, wax, monosaccharide, nucleic acid, fat or oil, phosphate group, glycerol, disaccharide, dipeptide, phospholipid)
16. Metabolism, anabolism and catabolism
17. Laws of Thermodynamics
18. Kinetic/potential/chemical energy
19. Exothermic and endothermic reactions
20. Importance, structure and function in metabolic reactions of ATP
21. Uses of ATP (chemical, mechanical and transport)
22. Advantages of ATP
23. Understand how energy flows.
24. Enzyme structure, function, specificity
25. Induced fit model of enzyme function
26. Catalytic cycles (enzyme-substrate complex)
27. Factors affecting enzyme function (temperature, pH)
28. Enzyme inhibition (competitive and non-competitive) and allosteric regulation
29. Cofactors and coenzymes
30. Know the difference between an oxidative and reductive reaction.
31. What are NAD+ and FAD?
32. What is the formula for cellular respiration?
33. Be able to sketch and label a diagram of a simple mitochondria.
34. What are the four major steps in cellular respiration? Where does each reaction occur? What are the reactants and products of each reaction?
35. Be able to distinguish between the two types of ATP production: substrate-level phosphorylation and chemiosmotic phosphorylation.
36. What is the net amount of energy produced for one molecule of glucose through respiration?
37. Be able to compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
38. What is the formula for photosynthesis?
39. Be able to draw and label a diagram of a chloroplast.
40. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? What portion of it is relevant for the study of photosynthesis?
41. What are pigments? What is special about chlorophyll’s structure? Name some secondary pigments.
42. What are the main stages of photosynthesis?
43. What are the reactants and products of the ‘LIGHT’ reactions?
44. Be able to follow the path of electrons through cyclic and non-cyclic electron pathways.
45. Be able to follow the path of CO2 through the Calvin cycle.
46. C3 is a common metabolic pathway, what are other pathways that can be used by plants?
47. Be able to compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Unit #2: Homeostasis (~ 25%)
1. Feedback Systems (positive and negative feedback loops)
2. Maintaining Human Body Temperature
3. Stimulus, Receptor, Integrator/Regulator, Effector and Response
4. The Urinary System (know organs and structures involved)
5. Pathway of Human Urinary System
6. Kidney: Structure and Function
7. The Nephron: Structure and Function
8. Formation of Urine (Filtration, Re-absorption and Secretion)
9. Water Balance (ADH, blood pressure, blood pH and buffers)
10. Regulating Blood Sugar (insulin, glucagon, pancreas, diabetes, etc.)
11. The Structure of the Nervous System (CNS and PNS – divisions)
12. Types of Nerve Cells (glial and neurons)
13. Sensory, Motor and Inter-neurons
14. Structure of a Neuron
15. Reflex Arc (5 essential components)
16. Resting Potential of a Neuron
17. Action Potential (initiation, refractory period, threshold level, all or none response, depolarization, repolarization).
18. How an action potential moves along the axon of a neuron
19. Synaptic Transmission (synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters, etc…)
20. The Brain: Structure and Function
21. Endocrine vs. Exocrine Glands
22. Hormones (steroid vs. non-steroid hormones)
23. The Endocrine Glands and their Hormones (hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries)
24. Reproductive Hormones (male and female reproductive systems)
25. Menstrual Cycle
26. Immune System (ppt note)
Unit #3: Molecular Genetics (~ 25%)
1. Scientists and Experiments
- Mendel, Miescher, Levene, Griffith, Avery et. al, Chargaff, Hershey-Chase, Franklin, Watson and Crick
2. Structure of Nucleic Acids (DNA = double helix)
3. DNA Replication – Semi-conservative theory (Meselson-Stahl Experiment)
- initiation, elongation, termination, proofreading and correction (telomeres)
4. One gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
5. Central Dogma of the Genetic Code
- triplet hypothesis, transfer of genetic material, mRNA codons, characteristics of the code
- initiation, elongation, termination, processing of mRNA transcript
- tRNA, activating enzymes, ribosomes, initiation, elongation, termination
9. Regulation of Gene Expression (Prokaryotes)
- the operon model (lac and tryp operon)
10. Mutations and Mutagens
- types (point and chromosomal), causes, repair mechanisms
11. Difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
13. Organization of Genetic Material (Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes)
14. Restriction Endonucleases
15. Gel Electrophoresis
16. Bacterial Transformation
17. DNA Fingerprinting
18. Genetic Engineering: Biotechnology
Unit #4: Population Ecology (~ 10%)
1. Characteristics of populations
2. Dispersion Patters (clumped, uniform, random)
3. Measuring Populations (quadrat and mark-recapture methods)
4. Factors Affecting Population Change (density dependent and independent factors)
5. Carrying Capacity
6. Survivorship Curves (Type I, II, III)
7. Population Growth Models (geometric, exponential, logistic growth)
8. Interactions within Communities (ppt. note)
Unit #5: Evolution (~ 15%)
1. Evolution: Historical Perspective (Cuvier, Lamarck, Darwin, Wallace, etc…)
2. The Peppered Moth Story
3. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection
4. Evidence of Evolution
a. The Fossil Record
b. Geographical Distribution of Species (Biogeography)
e. Molecular Biology
5. Population Genetics – Review of terminology
6. The Hardy Weinberg Principle
p + q = 1
p2 + 2pq + q2= 1
7. Mechanisms for Genetic Variation
b. Genetic Drift (Bottleneck Effect, Founder Effect)
c. Gene Flow
d. Non-random Mating
e. Natural Selection (Stabilizing, Directional and Disruptive)
8. Types of Adaptations
9. Formation of Species
10. Biological Species Concept
- transformation vs. divergence
- geographical and biological barriers
- pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers
11. Types of Speciation – sympatric and allopatric speciation
12. Adaptive Radiation
13. Divergent and Convergent Evolution
15. The Pace of Evolution – gradualism vs. punctuated equilibrium
16. Evolution of Humans