Research Plan UpdateYour instructor will provide feedback for each section
Title:The title includes the precise identification of the problem; it contains the independent and dependent variables and target population. It must be clear, concise, and fully descriptive of the study. The recommended length is 12 words.
Remedial English: Does it Work?
Abstract:The abstract summarizes the contents of the manuscript. This includes the purpose of the study, the research question(s), the sample, instrumentation, a brief description of both the data collection and analysis procedures, and the design. The recommended length is 200–250 words.
This research seeks to determine if enrollment in remedial English courses impacts graduation completion rates students at a four-year University in rural Appalachia. The challenge begins with determining who the students are that are required to take remedial courses. While students are generally assigned to remedial English as a consequence of test scores, a few students will self-identify a need for this form of instruction. Transitions to college programs can aid students in identifying their needs, as can a variety of tools available. Seeking assistance and making assistance available is the next step. Then, students must identify their own learning strategies and take ownership of their own issues. Programs, such as remedial English courses, can aid with learning strategies. This research explores these needs and tools and programs and their impact on graduation rates at a University in rural southern Ohio.
Introduction: The introduction begins by persuading the reader that the topic is important by citing relevant and quality literature (i.e. 3–5 years since publication and includes 3–5 citations). It provides a general overview of the topic and prepares the reader for the background section of the manuscripts. The recommended length is 200–300 words.
Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) are typically even more unprepared for college level work upon graduating high school than those without learning disabilities. Consequently, LD students are more likely to be enrolled in remedial English classes. These classes are frequently taken for no course credit, yet are the same cost as a three unit course. This can be discouraging to a new college student. The student who takes the course may have to take it multiple times to prove readiness for freshman writing coursework. Consequently, students who take remedial English courses frequently struggle throughout their college careers. These students continue to struggle to graduation if they make it that far.
Bahr (2012) purports that “the majority of students do not attain college-level competency in the subjects in which they require remedial assistance” (p. 661). This unfortunate truth is applicable throughout the college population. Studies vary widely in the percentage of incoming students requiring remediation, but place it between 20 and 60 percent. Regardless, the problem is rooted below the college level. “Far too many secondary students struggle with literacy” (Ruggieri , 2012, p. 9). The current remediation plan sets up students with literacy issues for at least one extra year of college (Shaw, 2014). While the hope of common core curricula was as increase in academic rigor in preparation for life or college the majority of states have instead revamped their remedial programs to a more developmental approach (Shaw, 2014).
This Study’s Contribution
There is a culture gap between urban teachers and rural students (Hendrickson, 2012). Students who make it through their rural high schools frequently fail at the college level when faced with the need for remedial education. There is a dearth of literature on the subject as pertains directly to Appalachia and the determination of learning disabilities, remediation, and graduation rates. As Hendrickson (2012) points out, “The success of students in rural areas is vital to the success of the region, as these students will make up the community of the future” (p. 48).
This project endeavors to determine a relationship between the remedial English courses at a rural Appalachia four-year University and the graduation rates of those who take those courses. While students are generally assigned to the course initially by test scores, the students must pass the course and pass an achievement test to be allowed to register for the freshman level course. It would seem likely students who take and pass the remedial English course on the first effort are more likely to succeed in their college program. However, the students who repeat the course until they pass demonstrate a determination that may be critical in their success. This study will aim to determine the consequences of assignment and repeated assignment to remedial English courses on graduation rates.
Bahr, P. R. (2012). Deconstructing remediation in community colleges: Exploring associations between course-taking patterns, course outcomes, and attrition from the remedial math and remedial writing sequences. Research In Higher Education, 53(6), 661-693.
Hendrickson, K. A. (2012). Student resistance to schooling: Disconnections with education in rural Appalachia. High School Journal, 95(4), 37-49.
Ruggieri, C. (2012). Benjamin Franklin meets preservice methods students: Foundations for teaching high school English. Ohio Journal Of English Language Arts, 52(1), 7-12.
Shaw, D. (2014). Rethinking remediation for college students: Using preservice education students in connection with high school AP classes. New England Reading Association Journal, 50(1), 38-43.
Review of Literature:Thisbackground section addresses the gap in the literature by providing a comprehensive review of the literature. The background information is a synthesis of the most relevant literature (i.e. 5–10 citations) and provides the historical (e.g. how the problem has evolved over time), social (e.g. contexts), theoretical (e.g. the theoretical concepts and the principles underpinning the research), and methodological (e.g. how the problem has been examined over time). It also includes key research studies addressing the problem (i.e. 2–3 citations) showing that the problem is empirically significant and relevant to the field. This section ends by clearly and unambiguously stating the purpose of the study. Your last sentence of this section must state: “The purpose of this study is to…” The recommended length is 500–800 words.
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Question(s):The proposed research question needs to be derived from the problem and purpose statements. A well-formulated research question does the following: (a) asks about the relationship between 2or more variables, (b) is stated clearly and in the form of a question, (c) is testable (i.e., possible to collect data to answer the question), (d) does not pose an ethical or moral problem for implementation, (e) is specific and restricted in scope (i.e., the aim is not to solve the world's problems), and (f) identify exactly what is to be solved. A good research question also clearly identifies the sample population. In addition, it must be noted that the research question implies the research design and statistical analysis. List the research question(s).
What is the effect of assignment to and participation in remedial English courses as measured by graduation completion rates for students at a ruralAppalachian four-year-university?
Hypotheses:Well-formulated hypotheses are based on the following criteria: (a) the hypothesis states the expected connection between variables, (b) the hypothesis is testable, (c) the hypothesis is stated as simply and concisely as possible, and (d) the hypothesis is founded in the problem statement and supported by research. Like the research questions, the hypotheses in null form directly influences the statistical procedures used. Every research question must have at least 1 corresponding null hypothesis. List the null hypothesis(es).
H01 – The assignment to remedial English education will have no impact on graduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
H02 – The failure to complete remedial English education on the first try will have no impact on graduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
H03 – The successful completion of remedial English education on the first try will have no impact on graduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
H1 – The assignment to remedial English education will have a negative impact on graduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
H2 – The failure to complete remedial English eduation on the first try will have a negative impact on graduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
H3 – The successful completion of remedial English education onthe first try will have a positive impact on raduation rates for students at a rural Appalachian four-year University when compared to students not assigned to remedial English education.
Participants:Describe the sample. Include basic demographic information (number of participants, sample size, age, ethnicity, gender, etc.) described in narrative form.You may use estimated numbers for now ( e.g.the participants consisted of 15[50%] males and 15[50%] females. A total of 18[70%] of the participants were Caucasian, etc.).In the participant section, the sample size, the type of sample, and the sampling procedures (e.g., convenience sampling, cluster sampling, etc.)must be explained. This includes a discussion of how the sample isidentified from the population and a brief description of the target population. In other words, the sample selection procedures (who, what, when, where, how) need to be explained in enough detail for the study to be replicated. Furthermore, a rationale and support through quantitative literature citations must be provided for the adequate sample size (e.g., 64 per group), type of sample, and sampling method for your specific research design and analysis chosen. The recommended length is 100–200 words.
In the five year period 2007 through 2012, 1000 students were enrolled in remedial English courses at a rural Appalachian university. Of those, 350 were female (35%) and 650 (65%) males. The sample size was determined by all enrollments in remedial English over the fifteen semesters with five courses each during that period. The target population would be all students in rural Appalachian universities who are advised to enroll in remedial English coursework. Of these 1000 students, 875 (87.5%) were Caucasian, 50 (5%) were African-American, 50 (5%) were Native American, and the remaining 25 (2.5%) identified as blended or other.
Setting/Site:In the setting section, the setting of the study is described (e.g., testing location, specific course or program for the treatment and control groups, etc.). Real names for people, schools, and school districts mustnever be used. Use pseudonyms for people and descriptors when necessary. The setting, especially the treatment setting, needs to be described in sufficient detail so that the study canbe replicated.The recommended length is 100–200 words.
The University pseudonymously named Alexandria University is located in rural Appalachia in a town of less than 20,000 people. The university traditionally enrolls between four and five thousand students per semester and has a 1:8 teacher-student ratio. In 2007, the school transitioned from quarter-enrollment to a semester program. In concert with this transition was a required change in curriculum to meet the new course length. Remedial English courses had been in a three-part series for reading, basic writing-mechanics, and basic writing-paragraphs. Since the transition, the reading course has been eradicated and the basic writing courses have been expanded to ensure students with reading issues are incorporated. These courses are limited to twenty students, but only require an enrollment of eight students to start the course. Typically, there are ten to fifteen students enrolled, but only as many as half maintain enrollment throughout the term.
Instrumentation:In the instrumentation section, the instrument(s) that are used to measure each variable needs to be identified. The instruments may be tests, surveys, questionnaires, or other measurements. Only validated instruments may be used. A description of each instrument, its content, its origin, and its appropriateness needs to be included. If applicable, scoring information for the composite and subscales mustto be included as well as validity information and reliability statistics. The validity and reliability information must be cited. In some cases, reliability statistics need to be reported for the data in the present study. If there is a case where an instrument is created for the purpose of the study, the procedures followed for development, reliability information, and validity information must be provided. The protocol used for developing the instrument mustbe informed by the research; the procedures followed mustbe cited. The recommended length is 200–300 words.
Alexandria University (AU) uses the ACT test for placement in the English composition program. Students receiving a score of 18 or higher are authorized to enroll in the college-level composition program while students receiving a 17 or lower are to enroll in a remedial English course officer through the School of University Studies. For those students to whom the ACT test was not an option, the school offers the ACT-Compass exam for placement purposes. Additionally, the Reading, Writing Skills, and Writing Essay portions of the ACT-Compass exam are used at the end of the remedial program to inventory the skills of the student and determine readiness for college-level work. The test scores are recorded by the Office of Institutional Efficiency under student identification numbers along with grades received. The ACT is internationally recognized as a validated instrument for placement purposes. Founded in 1959 as the American College Testing program, ACT has been placing students in colleges worldwide for the last fifty-five years. The Testing Center at Alexandria has been administering the ACT-Compass program since the establishment of the university in the mid-1980s.
Research Design: In the design section, the research design(s) is identified. The research design needs to be specific. For example, it is not sufficient to state that a quasi-experimental study will be conducted; instead, it is betterto state that a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design will be conducted.
Immediately after identifying the design, identify the independent and dependent variables and any covariates. In addition, give a rationale for why the design is most appropriate for the study. This rationale for the design needs to be supported by research literature (what is the purpose of the design? When is it used? Why is it the most appropriate choice for the present study?). Refer to educational research texts for the proper design description and use them to support your rationales.
The chosen research design(s) mustbe consistent with the research question and hypothesis proposed as well as the procedures described. Occasionally more than 1research design is appropriate. The recommended length is 100–200 words.
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Procedures:In the procedures section, the details necessary to replicate the study are outlined. This includes, but is not limited to, information about securing IRB approval, eliciting participants for the study, conducting a pilot study, training individuals to implement treatment, administratingof the procedures, gathering the data, and recording procedures. The procedures mustbe described in a chronological, step-by-step narrative. The recommended length is 200–300 words.
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Analysis: In the data analysis section, the type of data analysis is identified, and a concise rationale for the type of analysis is provided. The chosen statistical procedures mustbe consistent with the research questions, hypotheses, and type of data collected (in other words, why is the chosen analysis the most appropriate choice to test the hypothesis?). The rationale needs to be supported via analysis literature. For each identified analysis, the following must be addressed: all assumption tests and how they were tested, the statistic used to report the effect size and the convention used to interpret it, and the alpha used. In this section, there must also be an identified statistical procedure for each hypothesis. Thus, it is useful to organize this section according to the research hypotheses. The recommended length is100–200 words per hypothesis.
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References:All of the references cited within the text mustbe listed in according to current APA format.
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