25, April, 2012
Attention Deficit Disorder
Experts categorize Attention Deficit Disorder into the development of medication, symptoms, and adult/children attention deficit disorder. Attention Deficit Disorder is a condition characterized by an inability to focus attention or to inhibit impulsive, hyperactive behavior; it is associated with poor academic performance and behavioral problems in children but also may be diagnosed in adults under certain conditions. The use of medication can help children with ADD control some of the symptoms that are usually hard to control like blurting out answers and being constantly in motion. The exhibited symptoms can help doctors prescribe the correct medication to help control those symptoms. Scientists occasionally compare adult Attention Deficit Disorder to children’s ADD to see if the disease is worse as an adult, or child.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common childhood disorders, and can continue through adolescence and adulthood (ADHD). The ADD symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder come in many forms and no two people display the same symptoms of ADD or ADHD (Symptoms of ADD). A few symptoms of ADD and ADHD include not being able to sit still, unable to plan ahead, finish tasks, or being unaware of things happening around them (Symptoms of ADD). Children who have symptoms of ADD or inattention may not seem to listen when spoken too, and daydream or become easily confused (Symptoms of ADD).
Symptoms of Hyperactivity may include talking non-stop, fidgeting and squirming in their seats, and being constantly in motion (Symptoms of ADD). Some children with ADHD may tend to lean closer to one category of ADHD than another (ADHD). ADHD is broken down into three subtypes: combined type, predominantly inattentive type, and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (Is it ADD or ADHD?)
Experts believe that around 3% of children have ADD or ADHD (What is ADHD?). Children who have symptoms of ADD make careless mistakes at school and do not pay attention to details. Children who do not have ADD can occasionally experience ADD like symptoms. Many children who are diagnosed with ADD will have a short attention span, inability to concentrate, they can be hyperactive and clumsy, and have school related problems (What is ADHD?). Experts believe ADD is a development problem caused by failure of the brain and nervous system to grow properly. Adolescents who have ADD are usually not hyperactive, although they have problems with impulsive talking and behavior. While most experts support ADD diagnosis, the final report noted a need for further research into the validity of the diagnosis (What is ADHD?).
Adolescents for whom it is difficult to select and focus on the relevant stimuli procrastinate on homework and chores. They go to their rooms, perhaps with the best intentions of doing their homework, but instead daydream, fiddle with things on their desk, look out the window, and everything but start their homework. They socialize so much in class that they never start their independent class work. They study for their examinations at the last minute, or start the term paper the night before it is due. (ADHD in Adolescents Pg15-16)
The medical treatment of ADD is one of the most controversial issues in education and in medicine (“Treatment and Therapy”). The most prescribed medications for ADD are called Stimulants. They include Dexedrine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a combination of Dexedrine Salts (Adderal). Clinical experience has shown that the most effective treatment for ADHD is a combination of medication, therapy or counseling to learn coping skills and adaptive behavior, and ADD coaching for adults (“Treatment and Therapy”). Appropriate and reasonable accommodations are sometimes made at school for children with ADHD, and in the workplace for adults with ADHD. Adults with ADD are treated the same way as children, with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of treatments (“Treatment of ADD”).
Stimulant medications come in different forms, such as a pill, capsule, liquid, or a skin patch (“ADD Medications”). The most common type of medication, stimulants, has a calming affect on children with ADHD. There are a number of side effects on taking stimulants. Some major ones include a decreased appetite, sleep problems, and some children develop tics (“ADD Medications”). Stimulants like Adderal are forms of amphetamines, while stimulants like Concerta are forms of methyphenidates.
ADHD is the preferred term because it describes both primary aspects of the condition: inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior (Symptoms of ADHD). Children who have problems in school but get along well at home or with friends are not considered to have ADHD. Parents and teachers should understand that a careful and complete evaluation will span several office visits and may require special testing or consultation (Evaluation of ADHD). Parents may blame themselves when a child is diagnosed with ADHD, but researchers increasingly believe that causes have more to do with inherited traits than parenting choices (Causes of ADHD).
Risk factors of ADHD may include maternal exposure to toxins, premature birth, and smoking, drinking alcohol, or using drugs during pregnancy (Risk Factors of ADD). ADHD frequently occurs along with certain other conditions, including: Hyperthyroidism, having a learning disability and oppositional defiant disorder. Children with ADHD often struggle in the classroom, tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds and are at risk of alcohol and drug abuse (Complications of ADD). Children with ADHD are more likely than other children to also have conditions such as ODD, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety disorders.
The diagnosis of ADHD in the preschool-aged child is possible, but it can be difficult and should be made cautiously by experts well-trained in childhood neurobehavioral disorders (Diagnosis of ADHD). Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels (Diagnosis of ADHD). Adults with ADHD may have difficult following directions, remembering information, concentrating, organizing tasks or completing work within time limits. Adults with ADHD are more likely to have marital problems and multiple marriages and also have a higher incidence of separation and divorce.
The most common cause of ADHD is inheritance (Inheritance of ADHD). Over 70% of individuals have a family member with the disorder. (Research with twins, even identical twins who grew up in different homes, has strongly supported the genetic link.) Research has shown that ADHD does seem to cluster in families. Several investigations have demonstrated that children who have ADHD usually have at least 1 close relative who also haves ADHD (Inheritance). For the other 30% of individuals who do not have a cleat inheritance pattern, the cause is most often related to physical problems during birth or pregnancy.
Experts categorize Attention Deficit Disorder into the development of medication, symptoms, and adult attention deficit disorder. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, effecting 3 to 5% of children globally with symptoms starting before the age of seven. ADHD is also a common chronic disorder in children with 30 to 50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. However, many aspects of daily life that most people take for granted are rendered more difficult by the symptoms of ADHD.
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