Policy Name: Safeguarding Young People and Vulnerable Adults Policy
Policy Version: V2
Effective Date: 17/08/2017
Review Date: 16/08/2018
Policy Responsibility: Designated Safeguarding Officers
For Action By: All members of Be A Better You staff and students
Be A Better You Training is dedicated to promoting our values of honesty, integrity, mutual respect and personal accountability to support our students in becoming fully rounded members of society with a strong sense of social and moral responsibility. We prepare our students for life in Modern Britain by developing an understanding of democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, mutual respect and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs and this is reflected in our policies.
Be A Better You Training has a duty to ensure that it functions with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of young people and vulnerable adults undertaking education and training.
The purpose of the policy:
• To provide protection for the young people and vulnerable adults undertaking education and training at Be A Better You Training
• To prevent students from being drawn into terrorism or other forms of extremism
• To provide staff with guidance on procedures they should adopt in the event that they suspect a student in a vulnerable situation may be experiencing, or be at risk of, harm
Be A Better You recognises that all members of staff and learners have a role to play in safeguarding the welfare of children/young people and vulnerable adults and preventing their abuse.
All complaints, allegations or suspicions will be taken seriously and where action is necessary, this will be undertaken with due regard to Be A Better You Safeguarding Procedures.
Be A Better You recognises that:
• The welfare of all students is paramount, as enshrined in the Children Act 1989 and Care Act 2014
• All students regardless of age, disability, gender, racial heritage, religious belief, sexual orientation or identity, have the right to equal protection from all types of harm or abuse
• It is better to help children and vulnerable adults as early as possible, before issues escalate and become more damaging
• Working in partnership with young people and vulnerable adults, their parents, carers and their agencies is essential in promoting their welfare
The Children Act 1989 and 2004 defines a ‘child’ as a person under the age of 18.
The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 defines a ‘vulnerable adult’ as a Person aged 18 and over, and who is or may be in need of community care services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness; and who is or may be unable to take care of him or herself, or unable to protect him or herself against significant harm or exploitation’ (Department of Health, 2000).
An adult is classed as vulnerable when they are receiving one of the following services:
• social care service;
• health care;
• Living in sheltered accommodation;
• Detained in custody or under a probation order;
• Requiring assistance in the conduct of his/her affairs;
• Receiving a service or participating in an activity targeted at older people;
• People with disabilities or with physical or mental health conditions.
Vulnerable adults may include those people who:
• Suffer from mental illness, including dementia
• Have a physical or sensory disability
• Have a learning disability
• Have an acquired brain injury
• Suffer from a severe, incapacitating physical illness
• Are elderly and very frail
This policy has been drawn up on the basis of law and guidance that seeks to protect children and vulnerable adults, namely:
• Children Act 1989 & 2004
• Education Act 2002 & 2011
• United Convention of the Rights of the Child 1990
• Care Act 2014
• Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006
• Data Protection Act 1998
• Freedom of Information Act 2000
• Sexual Offences Act 2003 - Position of Trust
• Protection of Freedoms Act 2012
• Childcare (Disqualification) Regulations 2009
• Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015
• Government statutory guidance
- Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015
- Keeping Children Safe in Education 2016
- Prevent Duty 2015
We will seek to safeguard and promote the welfare of young people and vulnerable adults by:
- Valuing them, listening to and respecting them
- Adopting safeguarding practices through procedures and a code of conduct for staff and volunteers
- Developing and implementing an effective Prevent strategy and related procedures
- Recruiting staff and volunteers safely, ensuring all necessary checks are made
- Providing effective management for staff through supervision, support and training
- Promoting our policies and values to make it clear that ours is a tolerant and welcoming community for all students
- Educating and supporting students to fulfil their potential and be successful in their future lives
- Equipping staff with the knowledge of possible signs / indicators of concern with regards to extremist opinions, how to deal with these and challenge them effectively and / or refer through key reference and support channels
- Equipping staff with the knowledge of possible signs / indicators of concern with regards to grooming and recruitment, how to deal with these and / or refer through key reference and support channels
- Facilitating staff to develop and share teaching, learning and assessment strategies around resilience, e-safety and critical thinking skills as appropriate
- Equipping staff with the skills to recognise signs/indicators of physical, emotional, sexual abuse and neglect
We are committed to reviewing our policy and good practice annually.
- Anti-Bullying Policy
- Equality and Diversity Statement
- Safer Recruitment and Selection Policy and Procedure
- Preventing Radicalisation and Extremism Safeguarding Policy
Designated Safeguarding Officers
Name / Role / Email / Phone number
Alison Morley / Team Leader / / 02037636070
Sam Nicoll / Tutor Manager / / 02037636115
Types of Abuse and Neglect
All Be A Better You Training staff should be aware that abuse, neglect and safeguarding issues are rarely standalone events that can be covered by one definition or label. In most cases multiple issues will overlap with one another.
A form of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting by those known to them or, more rarely, by others (e.g. via the internet). They may be abused by an adult or adults or another child or children.
A form of abuse which may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.
The persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond a child’s developmental capability as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, although it may occur alone.
Involves forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
The persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as
result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to: provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment); protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger; ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
Additional/Specific Forms of Abuse
Peer on Peer Abuse
All staff should be aware that safeguarding issues can manifest themselves via peer on peer abuse. This is most likely to include, but not be limited to: bullying (including cyber bullying), gender based violence/sexual assaults and sexting. Staff should also be aware that behaviour linked to such as drug taking, alcohol abuse, truanting and sexting put children in danger. The College deals with peer-on-peer abuse with the same importance as other safeguarding issues by drawing on, for example, the Anti-Bullying Policy and Student Disciplinary Procedures as necessary.
Abuse of Trust
All staff need to know that inappropriate behaviour with or towards children is unacceptable. In particular, under the Sexual Offences Act 2003 it is an offence for a person over 18 (e.g. teacher, youth worker) to have a sexual relationship with a child under 18 where that person is in a position of trust in respect of that child, even if the relationship is consensual. This applies where the child is in full-time education and the person works in the same establishment as the child, even if he/she does not teach the child.
A forced marriage takes place when the bride, groom or both do not want to get married but are forced to by others, usually their families. People forced into marriage may be tricked into going abroad, physically threatened and/or emotionally blackmailed to do so.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Female genital mutilation comprises of all procedures involving the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. There are 4 types of FGM, ranging from a symbolic prick to the vagina to the fairly extensive removal and narrowing of the vagina opening.
"Cyber-bullying" is when a child is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones. It has to have a minor on both sides, or at least have been instigated by a minor against another minor. Once adults become involved, it is plain and simple cyber-harassment or cyber-stalking.
Money can be a very powerful method for a perpetrator to exert control. But what is financial abuse. Financial abuse may include: Taking money from the person; not allowing them access to shared money; making them account for everything spent; making them beg for money; causing them to lose, or forcing them to give up, employment; forcing them to commit crimes for money; not allowing them to buy necessities, for themselves or their children, including sufficient food; withholding of child maintenance. Financial abuse can also be when the perpetrator is spending money needed to maintain the home on themselves and may continue after a relationship has ended.
Radicalisation & Violent extremism
Be A Better You is also concerned with the abuse of vulnerable adults and young people through Radicalisation & Violent extremism. The organisation is vigilant to concern about the presence of radicalisation and/or extremism within any setting or the failure of the organisation to address such issues appropriately
Violent Extremism is defined by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) as: "The demonstration of unacceptable behaviour by using any means or medium to express views, which: Encourage, justify or glorify terrorist violence in furtherance of particular beliefs; Seek to provoke others to terrorist acts; Encourage other serious criminal activity or seek to provoke others to serious criminal acts; Foster hatred which might lead to inter-community violence in the UK."
In order to ensure staff are appropriately aware of such incidences and are able to report them appropriately, further guidance is available in the Preventing Radicalisation and Extremism Safeguarding Policy.
Detecting Radicalisation and Extremism - There is no stereotype for people who hold extremist views. Vulnerability, isolation and personal grievances added to strong political, religious or social views, can result in a person searching for a cause.
People can become vulnerable for many reasons including:
- Low self-esteem
- Family breakdown
- Lack of purpose
- Peer pressure
We are by no means suggesting that one or all of these characteristics or circumstances will drive someone to terrorism. But they often lead to a sense of injustice – be that on a personal or more far reaching scale. Their vulnerabilities or susceptibilities are then exploited towards crime or terrorism by people who have their own agenda.
There is no typical gender, age, religion or background that extremists will target but they use a sense of “Duty” (belonging to a specific group), “Status” (need for reputation) and “Spiritual Rewards” (test of faith) as a way of drawing them in.
This raises the question of what will those signs of radicalisation look like: They will look a lot like troubling behaviour:
- Emotional – angry, mood swings, new found arrogance
- Verbal – expressing opinions that are at odds with generally shared values
- Physical – appearance (tattoos), change in routine.
What to do if you believe someone to be at risk of radicalisation?
Be A Better You Training will adopt the ethos of “Notice, Check, Share” where there are concerns that an individual may be vulnerable.
Notice – Recognition of any changes in behaviour or appearance.
Check – Speak with someone you trust like a tutor or manager and see what they recommend but trust your instinct if you are still concerned.
Share – Speak to one of the named contacts to report your concerns. Remember trust your instinct.
If you are concerned about a student, please “Check” and “Share” with the Safeguarding Officer.
If you are concerned about another member of staff please “Check” with your Line Manager and “Share” with the Safeguarding Officer or HR.
If you are concerned about a person who is not a member of Be A Better You Training but could be in contact with our students e.g. a gym member, please “Check” and “Share” with the Safeguarding Officer.
Possible Signs and Symptoms of Abuse
The following signs may or may not be indicators that abuse has taken place, but the possibility should be considered.
- Unexplained and so called “accidental” injuries, burns or bruising
- Improbable excuses or refusal to explain injuries
- Refusal to undress for physical activities
- Self-destructive tendencies
- Aggression towards others
- Fear of physical contact - shrinking back if touched
- Admitting that they are punished, but the punishment is excessive
- Fear of suspected abuser being contacted
- Physical, mental and emotional development delays
- Sudden speech disorders
- Continual self-depreciation ('I'm stupid, ugly, worthless, etc.')
- Overreaction to mistakes
- Extreme fear of any new situation
- Inappropriate response to pain ('I deserve this')
- Unusual attention seeking behaviour
- Extremes of passivity or aggression
- Being overly affectionate or knowledgeable in a sexual way inappropriate to the child’s age
- Itchy or pain in the genital area
- Other extreme reactions, such as depression, self-mutilation, suicide attempts, running away, overdoses, anorexia
- Personality changes such as becoming insecure or clinging
- Being isolated or withdrawn
- Inability to concentrate
- Become worried about clothing being removed
- Suddenly drawing sexually explicit pictures
- Trying to be 'ultra-good' or perfect; overreacting to criticism
- Constant hunger
- Poor personal hygiene, poor state of clothing
- Constant tiredness
- Untreated medical problems
- No social relationships
- Compulsive scavenging
- Destructive tendencies
- Stealing food/money
- Poor college attendance
- Compulsive attention seeking
Implementation of Policy and Procedures
The following procedures provide guidance to managers and staff on the implementation of the policy.
It is important that children/young people and vulnerable adults are protected from abuse and that all complaints, allegations and suspicions are taken seriously and dealt following procedures in place.
Be A Better You Training are dedicated to:
- Ensuring every member of staff and the Corporation knows the name of the designated senior person responsible for child protection and their role.
- Ensuring all staff and volunteers understand their responsibilities in being alert to the signs of abuse including extremism and radicalisation and responsibility for referring any concerns to the designated senior person or the nominated person responsible for child protection.
- Develop effective links with relevant agencies and co-operate as required with their enquiries regarding child protection matters including attendance at case conferences and local networks.
- Keep written chronological records of concerns about students, even where there is no need to refer the matter immediately.
- Ensuring all records are kept securely, separate from the main student file, and in secure locations.
- Follow local authority procedures where an allegation is made against a member of staff.
- Ensure safe recruitment practices are always followed.
Dealing with a disclosure of abuse