Plate Tectonics Core Test Review
Standard 3: students will understand that gravity, density, and convection move Earth’s tectonic plates and how this movement causes the plates to impact other Earth Systems.
- An excavation exposes the side of a hill. Rock layers of different colors, thicknesses and textures are revealed as show in the sketch. Examine the figure and answer the question.
Which one of the following assumptions is made by biologists considering the fossils found in various layers?
- Fossil communities had the same physical environment as the present living community
- Each layer contains fossils that are older as you from layer I to layer VI
- Each layer contains fossils that are more recent as you go form layer I to layer VI
- An animal could burrow into any layer and become fossilized
- The development of radioactive dating technology allowed scientists to accurately find the age of rocks. How did this technology influence the advancement of our understanding of Earth’s history?
- Scientists found that Earth’s core was younger than the crust
- Scientists discovered that rocks are all about the same age
- Scientists confirmed that rock layers are the youngest on the top
- Scientists discovered that fossil age does not match the age of the rock it is found in
- What data would a scientist need to support the inference that a massive earthquake will level most structures and cause changes to animal and plant diversity along the Wasatch Front?
- A historical pattern of strong earthquakes along plate boundaries
- Recent evidence that strong earthquakes occur along major fault zones
- Weather patterns changing from drought to flood conditions
- The fast that squirrels on either side of the Grand Canyon are now different species
- The governments of communities that live near active volcanoes often debate regulations about how close to the volcano people and businesses should be allowed to build. What is the role of science in the decision making process of these governments?
- Scientists should pass regulations prohibiting people from building close to volcanoes
- Scientific data can be used to provide information regarding volcanoes for the community
- Scientific data should be rejected as it could bias the government’s decision
- Scientific data is not easily understood and therefore would not help in the process
- How has technology changed scientists’ understanding of sea floor spreading and how it is evidence of plate tectonics?
- Earthquakes are evidence of changes in the sea floor
- The measurement of the weight of the ocean gave evidence of sea floor spreading
- The ocean floor was mapped and studied using sonar and magnetometers
- Scientists used computer measurements of volcanic activity to give details of the sea floor
- What kind of movement on a plate boundary causes mountain building?
- Divergent movementc. Transform movement
- Convergent movementd. Biome movement
- Where are earthquakes most likely to occur on Earth?
- They are spread out evenly around the globec. On the sea floor e. In the mountains
- On plate boundariesd. On continents
Use the map to answer questions 8-10.
- Where are the most volcanoes located?
- In the Atlantic Oceanc. On the African Continent
- In the Pacific Oceand. On the Asian Continent
- Why are there more volcanoes where water meets land?
- Wave action on land plates
- The ocean plate is moving away from the land plate
- The land plate is moving past the ocean plate
- The ocean plate is colliding with the land plate
- Which symbol on the map shows evidence of plate movement?
- Hot spotc. Active volcano
- Plate boundaryd. Lines
- The Earth’s crust is broken into pieces called plates. These plates interact with each other at boundaries. Which of the following is the best data to use when classifying plate boundaries?
- The length of the boundary between two plates
- The size of the two plates that meet at a boundary
- The motion of the two plates relative to each other
- The speed at which the two plates are moving as the meet at a boundary
- Which of the following best describes how volcanoes transfer energy?
- Heat and mechanical energy are transferred as magma flows from a volcano
- Volcanoes gather heat from the Sun and give it off as light and sound
- Volcanoes carry heat from the surface to the deep interior of Earth
- Magma produced by a volcano can carry heat but not energy
- What kind of evidence do scientists use to locate boundaries of plates and interpret what type of boundary is present?
- Matching fossil recordsc. Similar rock layers
- Distribution of earthquakes and volcanoesd. Continents fit together like a puzzle
- Three science students provide a brief statement about convection. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the three statements?
“Ocean water has convection currents. One example is that ocean water is heated by hydrothermal vents and becomes less dense and rises. As it reaches areas of lower temperature water, it cools, increases in density and sinks.” / Student 2:
“The atmosphere near the Earth’s surface is heated, becomes less dense and rises. As the air rises, it expands and cools. When it cools, the air increases in density and sinks. / Student 3:
“Magma in the mantle is moved by convection. It is theorized that the internal heat of the Earth causes magma to rise to the top of the mantle. As it rises, it cools, density increases and the magma sinks toward the core.”
- Convection can only be studied in the mantle, atmosphere and oceans
- Convection is completely different in relation to each Earth system it happens in
- Convection is a topic that many science students find interesting to study
- Convection is a scientific principle that occurs in all of Earth’s spheres
- A dormant volcano in Indonesia erupted and ejected an incredible amount of gas and dust into the atmosphere in the early 1800’s. Over time scientists build up enough evidence to conclude that the gas and dust caused weather extremes, crop failure and major climatic change worldwide for over a year following the eruption. The link between these changes and the volcano’s eruption were not understood for years. What is this an example of?
- Values like logical thinking are important in science and understanding the cause of volcanic eruptions can explain why crops fail
- Scientific theories may change and all volcanoes are destructive and have negative effects
- The causes of volcanic eruptions describe why climates will change around the volcano
- Over time scientific knowledge accumulates; eventually scientists can determine the effects of plate movement on other Earth systems
- Wegener’s theory of continental drift was not accepted until the mid 1900’s. Which of the following are technological advances that led to the acceptance of his theory and lain the ground work for plate tectonics?
- Sonar and magnetometers mapped the ocean floor and detected magnetic striping
- Satellites created communication networks for scientists on other continents
- Computer system were used to stimulate tectonic patterns on other planets
- Seismometers were developed to accurately measure volcanic activity
- Which of the following discoveries caused science to re-evaluate its opinion of Alfred Wegener’s hypothesis about continental drift?
- Sea floor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean
- Valley and delta land formations
- The coastlines of Africa and South America have similar fossils
- The global rate of volcanic activity has changed over time
Use the statements below for questions 18 and 19.
(1) The study of seismic waves has provided most of what we know about the interior of the Earth.
(2) The seismic waves change direction and speed as they encounter different materials.
(3) With this information, scientists have been able to subdivide the Earth into layers.
(4) The composition of the Earth is also supported by data from the study of meteorites.
(5) Meteorites are pieces of asteroids that have broken off and enter Earth’s atmosphere.
(6) The meteorites have similar composition to what is believed to be in Earth’s interior.
(7) It is also thought that the asteroids that meteorites broke off from were formed at the same time and in the same way as the planets in the solar system.
- Which sentences provide evidence for the internal structure of the Earth?
- 1 and 3c. 4 and 7
- 2 and 6d. 3 and 5
- Which sentence is an inference?
- 1c. 5
- 3d. 7
- If a person wanted to raise doubts about Wegener’s theory of plate tectonics, what kind of evidence would the person need to provide?
- Fossil evidence showing similar types of organisms on different continents
- The close relationship between plate boundaries and volcanic activity
- Studies of rocks on the ocean floor showing that some rocks are younger than others
- Deep ocean studies showing no zones of movement on the ocean floor
- Alfred Wegener proposed that 200 million years ago, continents broke apart from the supercontinent Pangaea and have drifted apart over time. This idea is known as continental drift. Which of the following is the best fossil evidence for continental drift?
- Fossils of the same land dwelling animals were found on widely separated continents
- Fossils of the same ocean dwelling organisms were found in different oceans
- Fossils of the same warm climate organisms were found on continents with warm climates
- Fossils of the same freshwater organisms were found on areas with abundant freshwater
- Which of the following processes describes the interactions between plates that cause volcanoes?
- Two continental crusts pushing up against each other, forming volcanic cones
- Continental crust sinking into the mantle and melting, coming back up as volcanoes
- Oceanic crust subducting below continental crust, then melting and rising to the surface
- Oceanic crust pushing against oceanic crust causing underwater volcano peaks
- Consider the following statement: “The movement of materials in the mantle by convection causes the movement of tectonic plates.” Which of the following best describes this statement?
- It is a factc. It is an inference
- It is a guessd. it is an observation
- Which of the following lists energy sources that cause material to move within Earth?
- Sunlight and kinetic energy
- Geothermal energy and radioactive decay
- Energy stored in chemical bonds and heat transfer
- Nuclear energy and light
- Which of the following explains the role of Alfred Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift and the development of the theory of plate tectonics?
- Wegener’s is the only scientist who worked on the continental drift hypothesis
- A hypothesis usually has more evidence than a theory does
- Wegener’s hypothesis was contradicted by recent scientific information
- Evidence over the years has filled in the gaps in the continental drift hypothesis
- Tim studied the amount of energy that came to the surface of Earth from the interior for 16 days. His special equipment printed the graph below. His notes taken during the study indicate that two earthquakes preceded the volcanic eruption on the 15th day. Those occurred on the 3rd and 7th days. According to the graph, which event transferred the most total energy?
- Days 3-4, earthquake 1c. Days 6-8, earthquake 2
- Days 4-6, volcanic eruptiond. Days 14-16, volcanic eruption
- Ocean vents are caused by small cracks in the oceanic crust. Upwellings caused by ocean vents result in changes in the number of organisms near the vent. Why does this happen?
- The nutrient content is higher around the vents
- Ocean organisms enjoy the warmer water around the vents
- Wave action caused by the vents help the area stay unpolluted
- Ocean vents provide areas from more organisms to hide from predators
- If science accepts the conclusion that continents have drifted, what are they assuming is true?
- Gravity works the same on Earth as it does on other planets and stars in the universe
- Convection currents worked in the past the same way they work now
- The world’s climate has changed a lot over time
- Carbon dating is an accurate way to measure age
- Consider the following three pieces of data: which of the following best describes the relationship between the statements?
1.The continents on Earth fit together like a puzzle
2.The same plant and animal fossils are found on many different continents
3.Climate data indicates that some continents in the Arctic once were tropical and warm
- They are evidence for continental drift
- They describe major areas of geologic studies
- They help to explain why the plates on Earth move
- There is no relationship because they are separate areas of science