Nervous System-Guided Notes

Nervous System-Guided Notes

Nervous System-Guided Notes

Central Nervous System contains: ______, and ______. It has 4 chambers in the brain known as ventricles.

Brain has 4 parts: 1) ______, 2) ______, 3) ______, 4) ______.

1) Cerebral Hemispheres:

Covered by ridges called ______. Ridges are separated by grooves called ______. The hemisphere (right and left) are separated by a ______. Other shallow fissures divide each hemisphere into lobes. Lobes are name for the ______over them. Ear to ear is the central ______(sulci). Posterior to the central fissure in the ______lobe is the ______.

Anterior to the central fissure in the ______lobe is the ______. It allows us to consciously move our ______. It has the major voluntary motor tract that descends to the spinal cord and ______.

Areas in Cerebrum-Impulses for the special senses:

______= posterior occipital; ______= temporal lobe (lateral fissure); olfactory= ______.

Broca’s area: ______.

Speech Area:______.

Higher Reasoning= ______. Complex memories=______. Gray matter of cerebral hemispheres contain the ______of neurons. White matter of cerebral hemispheres is composed of fiber tracts which carry impulses ______.

Corpus callosum-very large fiber tract that connects the cerebral hemispheres and allows the ______. Basal nuclei or basal ganglia are buried within the white matter and help ______.

2) Diencephalon: Interbrain contains

______-encloses the 3rd ventricle, relay for sensory impulses. ______is the floor of the diencephalon and is the ______center. Functions include regulating temperature, water balance, and metabolism. The ______in hypothalamus is a center for many drives, including: ______. The hypothalamus also regulates the ______gland which contains mammillary bodies.

______forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle and contains the pineal body (endocrine gland). The ______forms CSF (cerebral spinal fluid).

3) Brain Stem

Midbrain extends from the ______.

______connects the 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle. ______contains four rounded of protrusions-reflex centers for vision and hearing. ______, just below midbrain, mostly fibers tracts, controls breathing. ______, most inferior part of brain stem, merges with spinal cord. Functions of overall brain stem: heart rate, blood pressure, ______and vomiting.

4) Cerebellum: Coordinates skeletal muscle activity, controls ______.

Protection of the Brain:

1) Skull

2) ______- 3 parts

______-outside, tough layer.

______- middle, contains blood vessels

______-surface of the brain layer.

3) ______-CSF continuously formed by choroid plexus and it ______.

Problems of the brain-concussion, contusion, hemorrhage, CVA, aphasia, paralysis ______.

Spinal Cord-17 inches from skull to L2. Reflex center and ______. Central canal contains ______.

Gray Matter of Spinal Cord:

______contains interneurons and sensory neurons; enter by ______. Ventral horns (anterior) contains ______, leave by the ventral root. The dorsal and ventral roots fuse to form the ______.

White Matter of Spinal Cord:

______, some run to other side of spinal cord, some run to higher centers. All tracts in the anterior and lateral cord are ______. All tracts in the posterior cord are ______.

Problems of the Spinal Cord:

Dorsal root damage- ______=parasthesis. Ventral root damage-______= paralysis.

Peripheral Nervous System:

Contains nerves-______. A nerve is a bundle of ______found outside the CNS. Nerves are neurons bundled in ______. Nerves are named like neurons. Carry to CNS=______. Carry from CNS= ______. Carrying both sensory and motor=______.

Cranial Nerves-12 pairs

1. ______7. ______

2. ______8. ______

3. ______9. ______

4. ______10. ______

5. ______11. ______

6. ______12. ______

Spinal Nerves-31 pairs

Formed from the fusion of the______. Divides into dorsal and ventral rami. Both types of rami contain both sensory and ______.

Dorsal rami are smaller and serve ______. Ventral rami of T1-12 form ______. All other ventral rami form plexuses which serve ______.

Two Divisions of the Peripheral Motor Nervous system: Somatic and Autonomic

Somatic nervous system: ______. Autonomic nervous system: involuntary, automatic. Motor control of cardiac and smooth muscle, and glands. Involves a chain of 2 motor neurons called ______.

Autonomic system has 2 arms: parasympathetic-______. Sympathetic-______. Both serve the same organ but release different ______. Parasympathetic-______fibers; sympathetic-______fibers.

Parasympathetic-Pre-ganglion and post-ganglion neurons secrete ______. Sympathetic-pre-ganglion neuron secretes ______. Post-ganglion neuron secretes ______.

Parasympathetic controls resting and digesting and maintaining homeostasis. Sympathetic increases ______. Dilation of ______. Shuts down ______system, and activates adrenal glands.

Developmental Problems

Nervous system develops in the ______of pregnancy. Viruses, drugs, alcohol and smoking can affect embryo. Birth defects include ______. Continued development

Last to form is the ______. Myelination continues through ______. Brain reaches maximum weight in the ______. New neural pathways can always ______.

Aging Problems

Sympathetic system becomes ______in the elderly. Arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure can cause ______. <5%senility at age ______. Boxers and chronic alcoholics show ______.

Reversible Senility-drug side effects, low blood pressure, depression, dehydration, and ______can cause types of senility that will improve if the initial problem is ______.