Ch. 14.1 – Immigrants and Urban Challenges
Nativists: Americana and others who opposed immigration
Know-Nothing Party: 1850s political party that supported measure making it difficult for foreigners to become citizens or hold office
Middle Class: social and economic level between the wealthy and the poor
Tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people
Implicit: understood though no clearly put into words
1. Identify causes and effects of Irish immigration. Include environmental and societal factors.
· Potato blight killed potatoes – led to starvation and disease
· Most were very poor
· Most were Catholic
· Settled in cities (no money to buy farm land)
· Worked on canals (Erie), railroads, as servants or in factories
2. Identify causes and effects of German immigration. Include environmental and societal factors.
· Escape religious persecution
· Escape political problems (revolution, harsh rule)
· Some very education
· Most were working class
· Included Catholics, Jews and Protestants
· Saw US as a place of greater economic opportunity and freedom from government control
· Most became farmers, lived in rural areas (Klein community was settled in this wave of immigration)
· Many moved to Midwestern states – more land for agriculture – high percentage arrived with money to buy land
· Tailors, seamstress, bricklayers, servants, clerks, cabinetmakers, bakers, food merchants
3. Identify causes and effects of the anti-immigration movement.
· Many native-born Americans feared losing their jobs to immigrants who might work for lower wages
· Some felt threatened by new cultures and religions
· Some founded the Know-Nothing Party
· New immigrants faced discrimination
4. Why did the Know-Nothing Party try to limit immigrants’ rights?
· See reasons listed above
· Wanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of public office
o Wanted to increase time to become a citizen
5. How did the Industrial Revolution affect life in the cities?
· Creation of many new factory jobs that drew immigrants from many nations and migrants from rural areas
· Transportation Revolution connected cities and made it easier to reach them
· ¾ of US manufacturing jobs were in northeastern and Middle Atlantic states
· Families of those who owned businesses or worked in skilled jobs did best à new middle class with large homes
6. List the conditions in the cities. Which do you think was the biggest problem?
· More entertainment and culture
· Compact and crowded, noisy
· Limited public and private transportation, so had to live near job
· Tenements were overcrowded, dirty, unsafe
· Lacked clean water, public health and sanitation à epidemics
· Criminal activity – no permanent police forces, just volunteers
· Racial and class violence
· Fire – little organized protection