GUIDED NOTES IGNEOUS ROCKS Name ______ Date ______

GUIDED NOTES IGNEOUS ROCKS Name ______ Date ______

SC Standard 8-3.4 Explain how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are interrelated in the rock cycle.

• ______ are naturally occurring combinations of minerals.

• Most consist of two or more different ______.

• Rocks are classified according to how they were ______.

Physical Properties of Rocks:

  1. ______(may have a distinctive color for identification)
  2. ______(is the color of the mineral in powered form- shows the true color of the mineral)
  3. ______(is a measure of the mineral’s resistance to scratching)
  4. ______(property of minerals that indicates how much the surface of a mineral reflects light or if it is SHINY.)

• ______


  1. ______Examples: Granite, Obsidian, Pumice
  2. ______Sandstone, Limestone, Shale
  3. ______Slate, Marble, Gneiss


  • IGNEOUS ROCKS: form from ______or ______. (MOLTEN ROCK)
  • Igneous Rocks forms around ______.

2 types of Igneous Rocks

Extrusive Igneous Rock / Intrusive Igneous Rock
  • ______ – Igneous rock formed from ______that erupted from a volcano. (exterior – exit)
  • Rocks cools ______.
  • Because rocks cool quickly, the extrusive igneous rock mineral crystals are ______or ______crystals are formed
  • Examples: Basalt, Obsidian
RECAP: Extrusive: Small or no crystals – Cools Quickly / .
  • ______ – Igneous rock that formed when ______hardened beneath or ______a volcano. (interior – inside)
  • Rocks cools ______.
  • Because rocks cool slowly, the intrusive igneous rock mineral crystals are that form are ______
  • Example: Granite
RECAP: Intrusive: Large crystals – Cools Slowly


Igneous Rocks goes mainly through processes:

1. ______

2. ______

3. ______

Sedimentary Rocks (Near Bodies of Water)

  • Forms ______ or where bodies of water use to be
  • Sedimentary rocks are made up of ______.
  • Sediment are small, solid pieces of rock, mineral grains, or shell fragments.
  • Sediments are formed through the processes of ______ of rocks exposed at Earth’s surface.
  • These rocks are always forming all around you.

Two Processes that make Sedimentary Rocks

  • 1. ______- process that ______sediments together.

At first, the sediment fits together loosely. Over long periods of time the layers build up.

The layers are heavy and press down on each other.

  • 2. ______ – process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and ______sediment together.
  • Sedimentary rocks usually have ______ within them.
  • Sedimentary rocks are also known for having ______.

Metamorphic Rocks (Underneath the Earth’s Surface)

  • Metamorphic rocks form ______.
  • Forms when ______are ______by great heat and/or pressure
  • Metamorphic rocks are heated, squeezed, folded, or ______changed by contact with ______.

Metamorphic Rocks Processes

Metamorphic goes through 2 processes:

1. ______

2. ______

Metamorphic Rocks Classification

  • ______Rocks – Have obvious ______.
  • ______Rocks – Have no visible layers.


THE ROCK CYCLE: The rock cycle is an ongoing process. The sample diagram illustrates the series of natural processes that can ______.