Gram + anaerobic spore former
C. perfringens-causes myonecrosis or gas gangrene as well as cellulitis
Introduced from enviroment or surgery
Toxins galore-many used for attachment of intestinal epithelium and changes in vasopermeablility.
Alpha=phospholipase C-causes tissue damage
Beta-necrotizing toxin involved in enteritis
Two toxins-tetanolysin and tetanospasmin (plasmid encoded)
Tetanospasmin is AB toxin binds to neuron and A portion is internalized
Blocks the release of neurotransmitters that inhibit activity
Lock-jaw, Bell tetanus risus sardonicus
Toxin is similar to tetanus but binds to peripheral activational neurons. Can cause respiratory problems.
Most toxic toxin known.
Generally contracted from home canning (green beans)
Infant botulism-lack of competition
C. difficile-psuedomembranous colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhea
Gram - anaerobe
Major component of intestinal flora
Has "non-toxic" lipid A
Irritable Bowel Syndrome caused by sensitivity to B. fragilis
Gram - intracellular pathogen-prevents phagosome-lysosome fusion. Can spread to liver and spleen.
Typically transmitted by insect bite (associated with animals)-many manifestations:
Skin, GI tract, eye, glands involvement with many organs
Melitensis (goat) and suis (pig) and abortus (cow)
Brucellosis-slow developing serious infection
Able to survive phagocytosis-prevent PMN degranulation lives intracellular in spleen, liver and bones.
Get from unpasteurized milk, improperly cooked meat etc.
Causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever-and typhus
Reproduce in endothelial cells-spots are a result of areas of cell death
RMSF result of tick bite-symptoms start 10-14 days post inoculation
Caused by R. rickettsii
Epidemic-louse borne -R. prowazekii
Endemic-flea borne- R. typhi
Sennetsu fever- caused by E.sennetsu-transmitted by tick
Causes Q fever
Picked up by inhalation of bacteria from environment
Acute or chronic disease-acute normal symptoms
Chronic-endocarditis or hepatitis
Coxiella lives in phagolysosome, Erlichia prevents fusion and reproduces in morula
Elementary body-like spore
Reticulate body-vegetative cell
Trachoma- keratoconjunctivitis-leading cause of blindness
Oculogenital disease-conjuctivitis associated with genital infections in sexually active adults
Lymphogranuloma venereum-small painless lesion quickly goes away, then spread of organism through lymphatic system
Urogenital infections-largely assymptomatic in females leading to PID, etc.
Males have urethritis
Passed by respiratory secretions
Plays a role in atherosclerosis
Infection through inhalation of dried bird feces
Mild symptoms-largely unreported
Eventually get pulmonary and nervous involvement