Fundamental Networks

Fundamental Networks


Module 8


8.0 Introduction
8.1 Explain the principles of networking
1. / What are networks? / Systems that are formed by links
2. / What are social networking sites? / Websites that allow individuals to link to each other’s pages
3. / What is a conceptual network? / A set of related ideas
4. / Why are computers networked? / To share data and resources
5. / What is the simplest network? / Two computers connected by a single cable
8.1.1 Define computer networks
6. / What is a computer data network? / A collection of hosts connected by networking devices
7. / What is a host? / Any device that sends and receives information on the network
8. / What is a peripheral? / Devices that are connected to hosts
9. / What type of resources can be shared on a network? / Services, storage space on removable devices, applications
10. / How are network devices linked together? / Copper cabling, fiber-option cabling, wireless connections
8.1.2 Explain the benefits of networking
11. / What are the benefits of networking computers? /
  1. Lower costs
  2. Increased productivity
  3. Fewer peripherals needed
  4. Increased communication capabilities
  5. Avoid file duplication and corruption
  6. Centralized administration
  7. Conserver resources

12. / What manages network resources? / A server
13. / What can be used to prevent users from overwriting files or changing files that others are accessing at the same time? / Document tracking software
Activity: Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking
8.2 Describe Types of Networks
8.2.1 Describe a LAN
14. / What is a LAN? / A group of interconnected devices that is under the same administrative control
8.2.2 Describe a WAN
15. / What is a WAN? / A network that connects LANs in geographically separated locations
16. / What is the most common example of a WAN? / The Internet
17. / What interconnects LANs at different locations? / Telecommunications service providers
8.2.3 Describe a WLAN
18. / In a WLAN, how are access points connected to the network? / With copper cabling
19. / What is the range for typical WLAN systems? / 30 m (98.4 ft) indoors to great distances outdoors depending on the technology used
Activity: Network Types
8.2.4 Explain peer-to-peer networks
20. / Explain a peer-to-peer network. / Each device has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities
21. / What is the best environment for peer-to-peer networks? / 10 or fewer computers
22. / What are the disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks? /
  1. No centralized administration
  2. No centralized security
  3. Network becomes more difficult to manage as number of computers increase
  4. No centralized data storage

8.2.5 Explain client/server networks
23. / Explain a client/server network. / Client requests information or services from a server. Server provides requested information or service to client.
24. / Who maintains the server in a client/server network? / Network administrator
25. / What is a workgroup? / A collection of workstations and servers on a LAN that are designed to communicate and exchange data with one another
26. / What is a domain? / A group of computers and electronic devices with a common set of rules and procedures administered as a unit
27. / What is a specialized server that manages all security related aspects of users and network resources called? / Domain controller
8.3 Describe basic networking concepts and technologies
8.3.1 Explain bandwidth and data transmission
28. / What is bandwidth? / The amount of data that can be transmitted within a fixed time period
29. / What is a packet? / Small chunks of data sent over a computer network
30. / What is a header? / Information added to each packet that contains the source and destination of the packet
31. / How is bandwidth measured? / Bits per second
32. / What is latency? / The amount of time it takes data to travel from source to destination
33. / What is simplex mode? / Single, one-way transmission; unidirectional
34. / What is half-duplex mode? / Data flows in one direction at a time
35. / What is an example of half-duplex transmission? / Two-way radios
36. / What is full-duplex mode? / When data flows in both directions at the same time
37. / What is an example of full-duplex transmission? / A telephone call
38. / How does full-duplex increase network performance? / Data can be sent and received at the same time
8.3.2 Describe IP addressing
39. / What is an IP address? / A number that is used to identify a device on the network
40. / What is another name for the physical address? / MAC – Media Access Control
41. / Can you change a physical address? / No; unless you replace the NIC
42. / What is another name for a logical address? / IP
43. / How is the logical address assigned? / By the network administrator
44. / How many bits are in an IP address? / 32
45. / What is meant by dotted-decimal notation? / The binary IP address is converted to its decimal value separated by a decimal point
46. / What are the two parts of an IP address? / network, host
47. / What is meant by hierarchical addressing? / The network portion of an IP address indicates the network in which each unique host address is located
48. / What are the five classes of IP addresses? / A, B, C, D, E
49. / Which IP class is used for experimental testing? / E
50. / What does the subnet mask indicate? / The network portion of an IP address
51. / What is the default subnet mask for Class A? /
52. / What is the default subnet mask for Class B? /
53. / What is the default subnet mask for Class C? /
54. / What is subnetting? / A logical division of a network
55. / What is the main difference between an IP address and a MAC address? / The MAC address delivers frames on the LAN, while an IP address transports frames outside the LAN
56. / What is a frame? / A data packet that, along with address information, is added to the beginning and end of a packet before it is transmitted over the network
57. / What does DHCP do? / Automatically assigns IP addresses to hosts?
Worksheet: Identify IP Address Classes
8.3.3 Define DHCP
58. / How does DHCP simplify the administration of networks? / Software keeps track of IP addresses ; automatically configures TCP/IP
59. / What happens if a computer cannot communicate with the DHCP server? / Windows automatically assigns a private IP address
60. / What is the operating systems feature that automatically assigns a private IP? / APIPA – Automatic Private IP Addressing
61. / How often does APIPA request an IP address from a DHCP server? / Five-minute intervals
62. / What is NAT (network address translation)? / The process to convert private IP addresses to public IP addresses to allow local clients to communicate over the Internet
8.3.4 Describe Internet protocols and applications
63. / What is a protocol? / A set of rules
64. / What are Internet protocols? / Sets of rules governing communication within and between computers on a network
65. / What do protocol specifications define? / The format of messages that are exchanged
66. / What are the main functions of protocols? / Identifying errors, compressing data, deciding how data is to be sent, addressing data, deciding how to announce sent and received data
67. / What is the communication protocol that establishes a connection on the Internet? / HTTP
68. / What is the protocol that provides services for file transfer and manipulation? / FTP
69. / What is the protocol used to securely connect to a remote network device? / SSH
70. / What is Telnet used for? / To connect to a remote network device
71. / What are the protocols used to download e-mail messages from an email server? / POP 3 IMAP
72. / What is SMTP? / A protocol used to send mail in a TCP/IP network
73. / Identify the correct port numbers: / 80 - HTTP
443 - HTTPS
20/21 - FTP
22 - SSH
23 - Telnet
110 – POP3
143 -IMAP
25 – TCP
74. / What is TCP/IP? / A set of public standards that specify how packets of information are exchanged between computers over one or more networks
Activity – Network Protocols
8.3.5 Define ICMP
75. / What is ICMP used for? / To send control and errors message to computers and servers
76. / What is used to test connections between computers? / Ping
77. / How does Ping work? / An ICMP echo request is sent to a destination computer or network device; the receiving device sends back an ICMP echo reply to confirm connectivity
78. / What is another use for ping? / To find the IP address of a host
79. / What happens if a router does not know where to send a packet? / The router deletes it
Mod 8 Study Guide – Pt 2
8.4 Describe the physical components of a network
80. / What are the most common devices on a network? / Computers, hubs, switches, routers, wireless access points
81. / What are the most common media used on networks? / Twisted pair, fiber optic, radio waves
8.4.1 Identify names and purposes and characteristics of network devices
82. / What do hubs do? / Extend range of a network by receiving data on one port and regenerating the data and sending it out to all other ports
83. / What is another name for a hub? / concentrator
84. / Why are files broken up into packets before they are transmitted over the network? / To allow for error checking and easier retransmission if the packet is lost or corrupted
85. / What is a bridge? / A device used to filter network traffic between LAN segments
86. / What is another name for a switch? / Multiport bridge
87. / What does a switch do when a frame arrives at a port? / Compares the address in the frame to its MAC address table and determines which port to use to forward the frame
88. / What do switches connect? / Segments of a network
89. / What do bridges connect? / Entire networks to each other
90. / What do routers use to forward frames? / IP addresses
91. / What do wireless access points provide? / Network access to wireless devices
92. / What do wireless access points use to communicate? / Radio waves
93. / What is a multi-purpose device? / A device that performs more than one function
8.4.2 Identify names, purposes, and characteristics of common network cables
94. / What do coaxial and twisted-pair cable use to transmit data? / Copper
95. / What does fiber optic cable use to transmit data? / Glass or plastic
96. / What is twisted pair cable used for? / Telephone communication and Ethernet networks
97. / Why is the cable twisted? / To prevent crosstalk
98. / What is crosstalk? / Noise generated by adjacent pairs of wires in the cable
99. / What is the cancellation effect? / A circuit has two wires, with oppositely charged magnetic fields. When the wires of the circuit are next to each other, the magnetic fields cancel each other out
100. / What are the two basic types of twisted-pair cable? / UPT & STP
101. / What is the most commonly used cable in networks? / UTP
102. / What is the range of a UTP cable? / 100 m (328 ft)
103. / Why is STP more expensive? / Because of the extra shielding
104. / What are the two factors used when deterring the category of cable? / 1) Number of wires in the cable
2) Number of twists in the wire
105. / What is category 3 cable used for? / Telephone & 10 Mbps LANs
106. / How is Cat 3 terminated? / RJ11
107. / What are the most common network cables used? / Cat 5 & Cat 5e
108. / How are Cat 5 cables terminated? / RJ 45
109. / How many pins are in a RJ11 connector? / 6
110. / How many pins are in a RJ 45 connector? / 8
111. / What is coax cable? / Copper-covered cable surrounded by a heavy shielding
112. / What is the coax cable with a maximum length of 500 m? / Thicknet or 10Base5
113. / What is the coax cable with a maximum length of 185 m? / Thinnet or 10Base2
114. / What is the most commonly used cable for television? / RG59
115. / What coax cable has the most bandwidth and less susceptibility to interference? / RG6
116. / Why is fiber-optic not affected by EMI or RFI? / It is made of glass
117. / What are the two types of fiber-optic cable? / Multi-mode and single-mode
Packet Tracer Activity
8.5 Describe LAN topologies and architectures
118. / What are the two types of LAN topologies? / Physical and logical
119. / What is a physical topology? / The physical layout of the components on the network
120. / What is a logical topology? / Determines how the hosts communicate across a medium
121. / What is a LAN architecture? / All the components that make up the structure of a communications system
8.5.1 Describe LAN topologies
122. / What does the type of topology determine? / The capabilities of the network
123. / Identify the following physical topologies

/ Bus
124. / Why do you need a terminator in a bus topology? / To keep the signal from bouncing back and causing network errors.
125. / How does a ring topology work? / A token travels around the ring, stopping at each host. If the host wants to transmit data, it adds data and destination address to frame. Frame continues around ring until it reaches destination address
126. / What is the advantage of a star topology? / Easy to troubleshoot
127. / What is a benefit of a mesh topology? / Every device is connected to every other device
128. / What are the two most common types of logical topologies? / Broadcast and token passing
129. / How does broadcast topology work? / Each host addresses either data to a particular host or all host connected on a network
130. / How can a host send data on a taken passing network? / Only if they have the token
8.5.2 Describe LAN architecture
131. / What are the three most common LAN architectures? / Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI
132. / What is the standard for Ethernet? / 802.3
133. / What is CSMA/CD? / Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
134. / What kind of topology does Ethernet use? / Logical bus & bus or star physical
135. / What topology was originally developed by IBM? / Token ring
136. / What is the token ring referred to and why? / Star-wired ring because outer appearance of network design is a star
137. / What is a MSAU? / Multi-station access unit
138. / What is the outer ring of an FDDI network called? / Primary ring
139. / How many computers can be supported in an FDDI dual ring network? / 500 per ring
140. / What does a repeater do? / Regenerates a signal
141. / What is the total distance of each length of FDDI cable ring? / 100 km (62 miles)
8.3 Identify Standards Organizations
142. / What do manufacturers use standards for? / Basis for developing technology
143. / What organization defines international communication standards? / CCITT (ITU)
144. / What is IEEE best known for? / Developing standards for the computer and electronics industry
145. / What is the mission of the IEC? / To promote international cooperation on all questions related to electrotechnologies
Study Guide 8 Part 3
8.7 Identify Ethernet Standards
8.7.1 Explain Cabled Ethernet Standards
146. / What is the standard for Ethernet architecture? / 802.3
147. / What is a backoff algorithm? / A random amount of time in which an end station will start to try network transmission again.
148. / In CSMA/CD, who transmits first? / First-come, first-served
149. / What is 10BaseT technology? / 10 mbps, baseband transmission, twisted-pair cabling
150. / What are the advantages of using 10BaseT? / Inexpensive installation
Easier to install
Easy to upgrade
151. / What is the maximum length of a 10BaseT segment? / 100 m (328 ft)
152. / What is the difference between 10BaseT and 100Base T? / Transfer rates are 10 times faster
153. / What is another name for 1000BaseT? / Gigabit Ethernet
154. / Why do people use gigabit Ethernet? / It is faster which makes it possible to implement bandwidth intensive applications (such as video)
8.7.2 Explain wireless Ethernet standards
155. / What is the standard for wireless networks? / 802.11
156. / Which wireless standard operates in the 5 GHz radio frequency range with a maximum range of 45.7 m (150 ft)? / 802.11a
157. / Which wireless standard operates in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency range with a maximum range of 91 m (300 ft)? / 802.11b
158. / Which wireless standard has the longest range? / 802.11n
8.8 Explain OSI and TCP/IP data models
159. / What is an architectural model? / A common frame of reference for explaining Internet communications and developing communication protocols
160. / Who created the TCP/IP model? / Us Department of Defense
161. / What are the four layers of the TCP/IP model? / Application, Transport, Internet, Network Access
162. / How many layers are in the OSI model? / 7
163. / What are the layers of the OSI model? / Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical
8.8.1 Define the TCP/IP model
164. / Where does a message begin in the TCP/IP model? / Application layer
165. / What network services are provided to the user at the application layer? / Web browsers and email
166. / What application layer protocol accesses, control, and troubleshoots remote computers and remote devices? / Telnet
167. / What application layer protocol translates domain names to IP addresses? / DNS
168. / What do the transport layer protocols provide? / End-to-end management of the data
169. / What two protocols are transport layer? / TCP, UDP
170. / Which transport layer protocol provides for the reliable delivery of data? / TCP
171. / Which protocol provides source and destination addressing? / IP
172. / Which protocol is used for network testing and troubleshooting? / ICMP
173. / How does RIP choose routes? / Based on the smallest number of routers through with the packet must travel to reach the destination
174. / What is ARP used for? / To obtain the MAC address of a node of a network when its IP address is known
175. / What do network access layer protocols describe? / The standards that hosts use to access the physical media
8.8.2 Define the OSI model
176. / How many layers are in the OSI model? / 7
177. / What is a protocol stack? / A system that implements protocol behavior consisting of a series of these layers
178. / Where are protocol stacks implemented? / Hardware, software, or both
179. / Which layer is responsible for providing network access to applications? / Application
180. / What happens at the transport layer? / Data is broken down into manageable segments for orderly transport across the network
181. / At which layer does the segment become a packet? / Network layer
182. / What information is contained in a packet? / Logical addressing
183. / What information does a frame contain? / Physical address and error correction information
184. / What are the two mnemonics for the OSI Model? / All People Seem To Need Data Processing
Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away
8.8.3 Compare OSI and TCP/IP
OSI Model Activity
Study Guide 8 Part 4
8.9 Describe how to configure a NIC and a modem
185. / What is required to connect to the Internet? / NIC
186. / Where can you find a driver for a NIC? / Manufacturer’s website
8.9.1 Install or update a NIC driver
187. / What is a best practice when running driver updates? / Close all applications that are running so they are not using any files associated with the drive update
188. / What button do you press to expand a category? / +
189. / How do you uninstall a NIC driver? / Double click adapter in Device Manager > Adapter Properties Window > Driver tab > Roll Back Driver
Worksheet: Internet Search for NIC drivers
8.9.2 Attach Computer to Existing Network
190. / What is indicated if there are no link lights on a NIC? / Faulty cable, faulty hub, or faulty NIC
191. / How do most computers get an IP address? / Automatically from a local DHCP server