First Semester Exam Review Packet
1.______For a neutral atom of an element to become a cation through a chemical reaction, which of the following must be true?
A) the atom must lose protons; B) the atom must gain protons; C) the atom must lose electrons; D) the atom must gain electrons; E) the atom may either lose electrons or gain protons; F) the atom may either gain electrons or lose protons.
2.______Which of the following particles has the greatest mass?
A) alpha; B) beta; C) gamma; D) neutron; E) neutrino; F) X rays.
3.______Which of the following nuclides would be predicted to be radioactive?
A) Sn-118; B) Ca-40; C) Pb-208; D) Am-244; E) Zn-65
4.______Cathode rays were found to be a stream of what type particle?
A) electrons; B) protons; C) positrons; D) alpha particles; E) cations; F) g rays.
5.______Which of the following has 20 protons and 18 electrons?
A) Ca2+; B) Ar2-; C) Cl-; D) K+; E) S2-
6.______A beta particle is essentially:
A) an electron; B) a positron; C) a proton; D) a helium nucleus.
Identify the reaction type with the reactions below:
A. spontaneous radioactive decay B. transmutation (nuclear disintegration)
C. fission D. fusion
7.______At-212 ------> Bi-208 + a
8.______Sr-90 + Li-7 ------> Nb-97 + g
9.______Ce-140 + b ------> Ba-138 + D
10.______Nd-140 + a ------> Zn-68 + Ge-76 + 2 n
11.______Natural silver consists of two isotopes: Ag-107 has a mass of 106.9041 amu and Ag-109 has a mass of 108.9047 amu. The periodic table gives the atomic weight of Ag as 107.868 amu. Find the percent abundance of the lighter isotope of Ag.
12.______If 3.00 liters of a 6.75 M solution of nitric acid is diluted until the new concentration is only 2.04 M, what will be the final volume of this diluted solution?
Matching: each answer should be used only once
13._____ He was given credit for discovering the neutron around 1933.
14._____ He determined the ratio of charge-to-mass ratio of electrons with his work with cathode rays in 1897.
15._____ His oil-drop experiment enabled scientists to measure the charge on the electron.
16._____ He concluded that the atom had a small, compact, positively-charged nucleus surrounded by electrons based on his gold-foil experiment.
17._____ He invented the mass spectrograph, an instrument that is able to separate atoms of slightly different masses (isotopes).
18._____ This Italian physicist was instrumental in the development of the first atomic bomb. He also prepared more than 40 different radioactive elements through neutron bombardment.
19._____ He is credited with the discovery of radioactivity.
20._____ Developed the first comprehensive atomic theory based on experimental observations of Proust and Lavoisier. He proposed the Law of Multiple Proportions.
21._____ This ancient Greek first proposed idea that matter had small, indivisible particles.
A. Dalton B. Rutherford C. Moseley D. Democritus E. Aristotle
F. Thomson G. Chadwick H. Millikan I. Gay-Lussac J. Aston
K. Bohr L. Becquerel M. Roentgen N. Goldstein O. Fermi
Answer the following questions based on the -2 anion of an isotopic form of sulfur: S-35
22.______What is the A number for this nuclide?
23.______What is the Z number for this nuclide?
24.______What is the number of protons in the anion form of this nonmetal?
25.______What is the number of electrons in the anion form of this nonmetal?
26.______What is the number of neutrons in the anion form of this nonmetal?
27.______The element samarium is known to have three isotopes - Sm-148, Sm-149, and Sm-152. The masses of these three isotopes are 148.1010 amu, 149.2005 amu, and 152.4107 amu, respectively. If the lightest isotope is three times as abundant as the heaviest, and the middle isotope is known to be 16.00% abundant, what is the percent abundance of the heaviest isotope? The average atomic mass for samarium is 149.18196 amu.
A) 14.35; B) 34.08; C) 28.81; D) 56.02; E) 21.00; F) 63.00
Complete the following nuclear reactions:
28.______Am-245 ( D , b ) ____?_____
29.______Ac-228 ( ? , g ) Pa-232
30.______U-235 ( n , ? ) Pa-236
31.______Cm-248 undergoes spontaneous radioactive decay by alpha emission. What is the resulting nuclide?
32.______What is the half-life of Fm-255 if its decay rate constant is 3.45 x 10-2 hr-1?
33.______How many hours does it take for a 3.000-gram sample of Ho-166 to decay until only 0.375 grams remains behind? The half-life of Ho-166 is 48.6 minutes.
34.______How many grams of Co-56 were initially present if only a 3.00-gram sample remains after 205 days? Decay rate constant is known to be 8.79 x 10-3 days-1?
35.______What percentage of Fr-223 remains behind from a 5.00-mg sample after 2.20 hours if the half-life for Fr-223 is known to be 21.8 minutes?
For the following reactions, give the sum total of all coefficients (including the understood 1"s). Be sure to balance the equation by the method indicated. Remember to reduce to lowest terms!!!
36.______HNO3 + H2S ------> S + NO + H2O
Complete the following nuclear reactions. Put the proper item (target, bombarding particle, expelled particle, or product) in the blank to the left.
37.______Al-25 ( b+ , a ) ___?___
38.______Y-90 ( D , __?__ ) Nb-92
39.______Cm-249 ( __?__ , 3 n ) Cf-250
40.______?___ ( p , g ) Np-238
41.______When Er-168 is hit by a beta particle, it undergoes a series of decays. In the process, it gives off 2 alpha particles, a positron and a deuteron as well as a daughter nuclide. What is the identity of this resulting daughter nuclide after this decay process?
Change-in-Oxidation Number Method:
KIO4 + Mn(NO3)2 + H2O ------> HMnO4 + KIO3 + HNO3
42.______For the equation above, what was the substance oxidized?
43.______What was the reducing agent?
44.______What was the total number of electrons transferred in this redox reaction?
45.______What is the sum total of all coefficients when the equation is balanced?
Cr2O7-2 + H+ + S-2 ------> Cr3+ + S + H2O
46.______For the equation above, what was the substance reduced?
47.______How many electrons were lost through oxidation before the equation was balanced?
48.______What was the total number of electrons transferred in this redox reaction?
49.______What is the sum total of all coefficients when the equation is balanced?
Ag2S + HNO3 ------> AgNO3 + NO + S + H2O
50. Write the balanced oxidation half-reaction.
51. Write the balanced reduction half-reaction.
52.______What is the sum total of all coefficients when the equation is balanced?
Cl2 + KOH ------> KCl + KClO3 + H2O
53. Write the balanced oxidation half-reaction.
54. Write the balanced reduction half-reaction.
55.______What is the sum total of all coefficients when the equation is balanced?
Balance the remaining equations by your method of choice:
Give the sum total of all coeficients in the blank. Don't forget the understood "1".
56.______PbCrO4 + HCl ------> PbCl2 + CrCl3 + Cl2 + H2O
57.______C10H22 + O2 ------> CO2 + H2O
58.______KMnO4 + H2S + H2SO4 ------> S + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O
59.______PCl5 + P2O5 ------> POCl3
60.______What is the empirical formula of a substance that is analyzed and found to contain 68.43% barium, 10.30% phosphorus, and 21.27% oxygen?
61.______4.72 grams of a gas at STP conditions occupies 575 ml. This gas is known to contain 30.435% nitrogen and 69.565% oxygen. What is the true, or molecular formula?
62______How many grams of barium hydroxide need to be added to 750.0 ml of water in order to produce a 0.880 M solution of this base?
63.______An organic compound is known to contain 48.00 grams of carbon, 1.20 moles of oxygen atoms, and 3.25 x 1024 atoms of hydrogen. If the molecular weight of this compound is known to be 363 grams/mole, what its true molecular formula?
64.______What is the molarity of a solution if 1.35 grams of sodium perchlorate is added to enough water to make 25.0 ml of solution?
65. T - F For matter to be classified as heterogeneous, it must be composed of more than one phase, or state, of matter.
66.______What is the basic structural unit of covalent compounds?
A) atom; B) molecule; C) isotope; D) nuclide; E) quark; F) element; G) cation & anion.
67.______What is the term that describes a homogeneous substance composed of only one type of atom?
A) alloy; B) molecule; C) isotope; D) nuclide; E) quark; F) element; G) compound
68.______Distillation is used to separate substances in the same solution having different:
A) freezing points; B) solubilities; C) densities; D)boilingpoints; E) none of these.
69.______Salt is dissolved in water. The water is called the:
A) solution; B) solvent; C) solute; D) interface.
Match the Latin name for each of the following elements using the following key:
A. stannum B. plumbum C. aurum D. stibium E. kalium
F. hydragyrum G. cuprum H. fermium I natrium J. ferrum
70.______lead 71.______sodium 72.______antimony 73.______iron
Classify the following materials using the following key:
(A) heterogeneous mixtures , (B) elements , (C) compounds , (D) true solutions
74.______mayonnaise 75.______3% hydrogen peroxide
78.______sodium carbonate 79.______soured (curdled) milk
81.______What group of elements is being described: generally low melting and boiling points; high electronegativities; high ionization potentials; poor electrical conductors at room temperature. A) metals; B) nonmetals; C) metalloids; D) inert (noble) gases
82.______What phase (state) of matter is being described: moderate rate of diffusion; have definite volume; no definite shape; moderate kinetic energy [K.E. is approximately equal to the IMF (intermolecular forces)] A) solid; B) liquid; C) gas; D) plasma
83.______What is the most abundant element in the universe?
A) H; B) He; C) O; D) Ar; E) Si; F) C; G) Al; H) Fe
84.______What is the second most abundant element in the biosphere (crust, atmosphere & oceans)?
A) H; B) He; C) O; D) Ar; E) Si; F) C; G) Al; H) Fe
85.______What is the most abundant noble gas in the earth's atmosphere?
A) H; B) He; C) O; D) Ar; E) Si; F) C; G) Al; H)
86.______Which of the following elements is a member of the alkaline earth family?
A) H; B) He; C) O; D) Ar; E) Si; F) C; G) Al; H) Ba
87.______Which of the following elements is a metalloid?
A) H; B) He; C) O; D) Ar; E) Si; F) C; G) Al; H) Fe
88.______What is the term for a substance that can act as either an acid or a base? An example would be NaHCO3.
89.______What is the term that is used to describe a metal's ability to be drawn into a wire?
90.______The Tyndall effect is a characteristic of what classification of matter?
What is the term for the following chemical, physical or nuclear changes?
91.______A nuclide is bombarded with a subatomic particle such as a neutron, causing the nuclide to fragment into two similarly-sized lighter nuclides.
92.______gain of electrons; for example, Fe+3 + 3 e------> Feo
93.______exchange of anions and cations between two compounds; for example, AgNO3(aq) + KI(aq) -----> KNO(aq) + AgI(s)
94.______Rainfall is an example of this physical change.
95.______Addition of sulfur to rubber produces a more durable, and much stiffer substance through this chemical process.
96.______Reaction of an acid with a base to produce water as well as a byproduct - salt.
97.______Energy-absorbing chemical process in which carbon dioxide gas and water are converted into glucose and oxygen gas, through a series of complex reactions.
98.______What is the mass, in grams, of a single molecule of hydrosulfuric acid?
99.______A 30.0-liter sample of dinitrogen pentoxide contains how many grams of oxygen?
100.______How many molecules of water are present in 80.0 milligrams of ferric chlorate tetrahydrate?
101.______What is the percentage of metal in a 2.000-gram sample of barium dichromate?
102.______What is the mass of exactly 13.50 liters of carbon monoxide gas at STP conditions?
103.______What is the number of hydrogen atoms in 34.7 grams of phosphoric acid?
104.______If you had 3.00 moles of auric carbonate, how many moles of pure oxygen gas could you get from this sample? [Hint: remember that oxygen gas is diatomic!]
105.______How many total atoms are in exactly 1.000 milligram of sodium tetraborate?
106.______How many moles of sulfuric acid do you need in order to release 10.0 liters of hydrogen gas (H2) at STP?
107.______If a compound of stannic chloride contains 45.53% tin by weight, how many chloride ions are there in 30.0 grams of this compound?
108.______How many ions (total of both cations and anions) are there in 0.0250 moles of chromium(III) oxalate?
109.______How many moles of metal can be recovered from 125 grams of strontium molybdate?
Give the correct name for the following compounds (spelling must be completely correct):
110. SrF2 ______
111. H2S(aq) ______
112. P2Br5 ______
113. Ag2S2O3 ______
114. FeCO3 ______
115. Sn(HSO3)2 ______
116. ZrBa(PO4)2 ______
117. NH4C2H3O2 ______
118. HNO3(aq) ______
119. Co2(C2O4)3 ______
120. K2MnO4 ______
121. H3BO3(aq) ______
122. MnSO4 . 6 H2O ______
123. Cu(SCN)2 ______
124. CdHPO4 ______
125. HCHO2(aq) ______
126. NaBrO ______
127. K2O2 ______
128. Mg(CN)2 ______
129. (NH4)2B4O7 ______
For the following compounds, give the proper formula (it must be completely correct):
130. scandium oxide ______
131. acetic acid ______
132. trinitrogen heptaselenide ______
133. carbonic acid ______
134. hydrofluoric acid ______
135. chromium (III) chromate ______
136. mercuric hydroxide ______
137. auric phosphide ______
138. beryllium bisulfide ______
139. cesium monohydrogen phosphate ______
140. xenon hexafluoride ______
141. cobaltous chloride tetrahydrate ______
142. nickel (II) permanganate ______
143. calcium oxalate ______
144. lithium telluride ______
145. aluminum nitrite ______
146. rubidium hypochlorite ______
147. plumbic ferrocyanide ______
148. barium molybdate nonahydrate ______
149. sulfuric acid ______