Expansion, Absolutism, Scientific and Political Revolutions

Expansion, Absolutism, Scientific and Political Revolutions

Expansion, Absolutism, Scientific and Political Revolutions

1572 - 1789

Commercial Revolution


Mercantilists argued that strong government must establish overseas colonies.



Charles V, HRE (1500 -1558)

Philip II (1556 - 1598)



Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)

Witnessed a Golden Age

moderated between Catholics and Protestant sects.

Spanish Armada (1588)


James I (1603 - 1625)

Believed in divine right of kings: received their power from God and are only responsible to God.

Commissioned the King James Version of the Bible

Established colonies in North America

Persecuted Puritans and non-conformists.

Charles I (1625 - 1649)

Petition of Right (1628)

No taxes without the consent of Parliament

No imprisonment without cause

No quartering of soldiers on the citizenry

No martial law in peacetime

The King violated this document. His wife, Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII, was a propagandist for the Catholic Church and contributed to the civil war.

English Civil War

Cromwell formed New Model Army. Puritans “Round Heads” defeat the Royalists.

The Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)

Oliver Cromwell heads the government as Lord Protector. As a military hero, he sets up a military dictatorship. He purges from parliament those who do not support him. The Rump Parliament was what portion of the parliament that remained.

Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651 as a response to the Commonwealth.

Restoration of Monarchy

Charles II, “The Merry Monarch” (1660 - 1685)

Navigation Acts

James II (1685 - 1688)

He became Catholic and remarried while England expected his daughter Mary to succeed him. James flees England with the announcement of the birth of a son.

Glorious Revolution

Parliament invites Mary and her husband William of Orange to rule jointly as monarchs to prevent the succession of a Catholic monarch.

English Bill of Rights

Monarchs are now limited in their power.

Parliament authority is now unquestioned.

Individual liberties (“life, liberty and property”) are strengthened.

John Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government that addresses social contract and natural rights. The purpose of government is to protect natural rights: life, liberty and property.

William III (1689 - 1702) and Mary II (1689-1694)

Irish Catholics start a Royalist uprising. The James II and the Irish are defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.

War of the League of Augsburg

Anne (1702 - 1714)

War of Spanish Succession


A system of government where a ruler holds total power.



Henry II (1547 - 1559)

Catherine de Medici

Religious Conflict

Francis II (1559 -1560)

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots

Charles IX (1560 - 1574)

French Wars of Religion (1562 -1598)

Admiral Coligny

St. Bartholemew’s Day Massacre, 1572

Henry of Navarre (Bourbon)and Marguerrite Valois

Henry III (1574 - 1589)


Henry IV (1589-1610)

Marie de Medici

“Paris is worth a Mass.”

“... a chicken in every pot.”

Edict of Nantes (1598) Ends the French religious wars. Huguenots are tolerated and are permitted to live in fortified towns.

Henry sought to eliminate government waste, reduce corruption, and promote trade by improving transportation

Assassinated in public

Louis XIII (1610-1643)

Cardinal Richelieu (1610 - 1642)

Estates General called in 1614.

He sought to weaken the Habsburg power. He introduced the principle of Balance of Power by siding with the protestants in the Thirty Years War.

He curbed the power of Nobles and the Huguenots

Cardinal Mazarin (1642 - 1661) served the regent Anne of Austria.

Continued policies of Richelieu in a less imperious manner.

Nobility uprising following new economic policies; these policies are discontinued

Louis XIV (1643 - 1715)

France enters its golden age.

Moved the Court to his new palace Versailles

Patron of the Arts

Code Louis (1667)

Colbert Chief Economic minister

Increases Intendants and nobles of the Robe.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes (1685): talent driven from the nation

lingua franca is established as the language of diplomacy.

Series of wars to expand borders exhaust

Franco-Dutch War (1672 - 1678)

War of the League of Augsburg, (1689 - 1697)

War of Spanish Succession, (1702 - 1714)

Philip of Anjou (Bourbon) to be put on Spanish throne.

Louis XV (1715 - 1774)

Two wars

War of Austrian Succession

Seven Years War

Louis XVI (1774 - 1792)

Marie Antoinette (Habsburg)

Scientific Revolution

Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)

Scientific Method

Johannes Kepler (1571 -1630)

Proved the accuracy of Nicholas Copernicus’s Theory of planetary motion (heliocentric view) using Brahe’s methods of observation and measurement.

Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642)


His life in peril for teachings that were not accepted by the Church

Andreas Vesalius (1515 - 1564)

Father of Modern Anatomy

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632 -1723)

Father of Micro Biology, he made many significant discoveries with his hand crafted microscope.

Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)

Father of Analytic Geometry and Founder of Modern Philosophy

“Cogito ergo sum”

Isaac Newton (1643 -1727)

Creator of Calculus, wrote Principia.

Saw the universe as giant clock.


Voltaire (1694 -1778)

The most celebrated of the philosophes, he was a strong critic of authoritarian rule and emanded freedom of expression for all.

Baron de Montesquieu (1689 - 1755)

Spirit of Laws (1748) detailed a plan of government involving separation of powers and cheks and balances to prevent the rise of tyranny.

Jean Jacques Rouseau (1712 - 1778)

Wrote the Social Contract: An entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.

Believed most strongly in direct democracy

One should balance heart with mind.

Teach to foster natural instincts.

Cesare Beccaria (1738 - 1794)

An Florentine who was critical of torture and the death penalty in his book On Crimes and Punishments.

Diderot’s Encyclopedia

contained contemporary ideas of science philosophy

it made arguments for social reform

The Salon

Hosted by aristocratic women, it was where intellectuals and writers shared and discussed their ideas.

Enlightened Monarchy

Influenced by the Enlightenment thinkers, the Philosophes favored this kind of government.



Peter I, “The Great” (1682 - 1725)

Brought western ideas to Russia

Strengthened the central government

Created a navy

Made St. Petersburg the capital

Introduced bureaucracy modeled from the French

Made French the language of the Court

The Court is to adopt Western European dress and appearance

All classes are to serve the state in some way.

Catherine II, “The Great”(1762 - 1796)

Granted greater freedoms for the upper class

Partition of Poland



Maria Theresa (1740 - 1780)



Frederick William I (1713 - 1740)

Frederick II, “The Great” (1740 - 1786)

Great Britain


George I (1714 - 1727)

George II (1727 - 1760)

War of Austrian Succession (1744 - 1748)

Culloden (1745)

Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)

George III (1760 - 1820)

Parliament and the king pursued policies that drove enthusiastic colonists to revolutionaries.

The American Revolution 1763 - 1789


The importance of Ben Franklin

Lexington & Concord

Bunker Hill

The importance of George Washington

Olive Branch Petition

Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations is published in 1776 to propose a better imperial economic policy involving laissez faire.

The importance of John Adams

New York 1776

The importance of Thomas Jefferson

Declaration of Independence


French Alliance

Valley Forge

Southern Campaign


Articles of Confederation

Treaty of Paris, 1783

Problems facing the new nation

The Constitution

Inauguration of George Washington