Expansion, Absolutism, Scientific and Political Revolutions
1572 - 1789
Mercantilists argued that strong government must establish overseas colonies.
Charles V, HRE (1500 -1558)
Philip II (1556 - 1598)
Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Witnessed a Golden Age
moderated between Catholics and Protestant sects.
Spanish Armada (1588)
James I (1603 - 1625)
Believed in divine right of kings: received their power from God and are only responsible to God.
Commissioned the King James Version of the Bible
Established colonies in North America
Persecuted Puritans and non-conformists.
Charles I (1625 - 1649)
Petition of Right (1628)
No taxes without the consent of Parliament
No imprisonment without cause
No quartering of soldiers on the citizenry
No martial law in peacetime
The King violated this document. His wife, Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII, was a propagandist for the Catholic Church and contributed to the civil war.
English Civil War
Cromwell formed New Model Army. Puritans “Round Heads” defeat the Royalists.
The Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)
Oliver Cromwell heads the government as Lord Protector. As a military hero, he sets up a military dictatorship. He purges from parliament those who do not support him. The Rump Parliament was what portion of the parliament that remained.
Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651 as a response to the Commonwealth.
Restoration of Monarchy
Charles II, “The Merry Monarch” (1660 - 1685)
James II (1685 - 1688)
He became Catholic and remarried while England expected his daughter Mary to succeed him. James flees England with the announcement of the birth of a son.
Parliament invites Mary and her husband William of Orange to rule jointly as monarchs to prevent the succession of a Catholic monarch.
English Bill of Rights
Monarchs are now limited in their power.
Parliament authority is now unquestioned.
Individual liberties (“life, liberty and property”) are strengthened.
John Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government that addresses social contract and natural rights. The purpose of government is to protect natural rights: life, liberty and property.
William III (1689 - 1702) and Mary II (1689-1694)
Irish Catholics start a Royalist uprising. The James II and the Irish are defeated at the Battle of the Boyne.
War of the League of Augsburg
Anne (1702 - 1714)
War of Spanish Succession
A system of government where a ruler holds total power.
Henry II (1547 - 1559)
Catherine de Medici
Francis II (1559 -1560)
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
Charles IX (1560 - 1574)
French Wars of Religion (1562 -1598)
St. Bartholemew’s Day Massacre, 1572
Henry of Navarre (Bourbon)and Marguerrite Valois
Henry III (1574 - 1589)
Henry IV (1589-1610)
Marie de Medici
“Paris is worth a Mass.”
“... a chicken in every pot.”
Edict of Nantes (1598) Ends the French religious wars. Huguenots are tolerated and are permitted to live in fortified towns.
Henry sought to eliminate government waste, reduce corruption, and promote trade by improving transportation
Assassinated in public
Louis XIII (1610-1643)
Cardinal Richelieu (1610 - 1642)
Estates General called in 1614.
He sought to weaken the Habsburg power. He introduced the principle of Balance of Power by siding with the protestants in the Thirty Years War.
He curbed the power of Nobles and the Huguenots
Cardinal Mazarin (1642 - 1661) served the regent Anne of Austria.
Continued policies of Richelieu in a less imperious manner.
Nobility uprising following new economic policies; these policies are discontinued
Louis XIV (1643 - 1715)
France enters its golden age.
Moved the Court to his new palace Versailles
Patron of the Arts
Code Louis (1667)
Colbert Chief Economic minister
Increases Intendants and nobles of the Robe.
Revocation of Edict of Nantes (1685): talent driven from the nation
lingua franca is established as the language of diplomacy.
Series of wars to expand borders exhaust
Franco-Dutch War (1672 - 1678)
War of the League of Augsburg, (1689 - 1697)
War of Spanish Succession, (1702 - 1714)
Philip of Anjou (Bourbon) to be put on Spanish throne.
Louis XV (1715 - 1774)
War of Austrian Succession
Seven Years War
Louis XVI (1774 - 1792)
Marie Antoinette (Habsburg)
Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)
Johannes Kepler (1571 -1630)
Proved the accuracy of Nicholas Copernicus’s Theory of planetary motion (heliocentric view) using Brahe’s methods of observation and measurement.
Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642)
His life in peril for teachings that were not accepted by the Church
Andreas Vesalius (1515 - 1564)
Father of Modern Anatomy
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632 -1723)
Father of Micro Biology, he made many significant discoveries with his hand crafted microscope.
Rene Descartes (1596 - 1650)
Father of Analytic Geometry and Founder of Modern Philosophy
“Cogito ergo sum”
Isaac Newton (1643 -1727)
Creator of Calculus, wrote Principia.
Saw the universe as giant clock.
Voltaire (1694 -1778)
The most celebrated of the philosophes, he was a strong critic of authoritarian rule and emanded freedom of expression for all.
Baron de Montesquieu (1689 - 1755)
Spirit of Laws (1748) detailed a plan of government involving separation of powers and cheks and balances to prevent the rise of tyranny.
Jean Jacques Rouseau (1712 - 1778)
Wrote the Social Contract: An entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
Believed most strongly in direct democracy
One should balance heart with mind.
Teach to foster natural instincts.
Cesare Beccaria (1738 - 1794)
An Florentine who was critical of torture and the death penalty in his book On Crimes and Punishments.
contained contemporary ideas of science philosophy
it made arguments for social reform
Hosted by aristocratic women, it was where intellectuals and writers shared and discussed their ideas.
Influenced by the Enlightenment thinkers, the Philosophes favored this kind of government.
Peter I, “The Great” (1682 - 1725)
Brought western ideas to Russia
Strengthened the central government
Created a navy
Made St. Petersburg the capital
Introduced bureaucracy modeled from the French
Made French the language of the Court
The Court is to adopt Western European dress and appearance
All classes are to serve the state in some way.
Catherine II, “The Great”(1762 - 1796)
Granted greater freedoms for the upper class
Partition of Poland
Maria Theresa (1740 - 1780)
Frederick William I (1713 - 1740)
Frederick II, “The Great” (1740 - 1786)
George I (1714 - 1727)
George II (1727 - 1760)
War of Austrian Succession (1744 - 1748)
Seven Years War (1756 - 1763)
George III (1760 - 1820)
Parliament and the king pursued policies that drove enthusiastic colonists to revolutionaries.
The American Revolution 1763 - 1789
The importance of Ben Franklin
Lexington & Concord
The importance of George Washington
Olive Branch Petition
Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations is published in 1776 to propose a better imperial economic policy involving laissez faire.
The importance of John Adams
New York 1776
The importance of Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Problems facing the new nation
Inauguration of George Washington