Epithelial Tissues

Epithelial Tissues

Epithelial Tissues

Tissues – Introduction

 a group of similar ______specialized to carry on a particular ______

 tissue = ______+ ______matrix

– ______portion of a tissue that ______cells

 4 types

– ______= protection, secretion, absorption

– ______= support soft body parts and bind structures together

– ______= movement

– ______= conducts impulses used to help control and coordinate body activities

Epithelial Tissues Characteristics

 ______surface open to the outside or an open internal space (apical surface)

 ______membrane anchors epithelium to underlying connective tissue

 lack ______vessels

 readily ______(ex. skin healing)

 tightly ______with little ______space

Epithelial Classifications

 classified based on ______and ______of cell layers

 shape

– ______= thin, flat cells

– ______= cube-shaped cells

– ______= tall, elongated cells

 number

– ______= single layer

– ______= 2 or more layers

Epithelial Locations

 cover body ______, cover and line ______organs, and compose glands

– skin cells, cells that line the stomach and small intestine, inside of your mouth

Simple squamous epithelium

 a ______layer of thin, flattened cells

– look like a ______egg

 easily ______

 common at sites of ______, diffusion, ______; cover surfaces

 air sacs of the lungs, walls of capillaries, linings of blood and lymph vessels

Simple cuboidal epithelium

 ______layer of ______-shaped cells

– centrally located ______

 secretion and ______

 surface of ovaries, linings of kidney tubules, and linings of ducts of certain glands

Simple columnar epithelium

 ______layer of cells that are ______than they are ______

– nucleus located near ______mem.

 ciliated or nonciliated

 some have microvilli

 goblet cells = secrete mucus

 absorption, secretion, protection

 linings of the uterus, stomach, and intestine

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

 appear stratified b/c nuclei are at ______or more levels

– ______stratified b/c all cells touch ______mem.

 ______

 goblet cells (secrete mucus)

 ______, secretion, ______of mucus

 linings of respiratory system

Stratified squamous epithelium

 ______layers of ______cells

 named based on appearance of ______layer of cells

 ______

 outer layers of skin, linings of oral cavity, throat, vagina, and anal canal

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

 2 or 3 layers of ______cells

 ______

 linings of larger ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas

Stratified columnar epithelium

 ______and ______

 vas deferens, part of the male urethra, parts of the pharynx (throat)

Transitional epithelium

 can ______

 ______(stretching), protection

 inner lining of urinary bladder and linings of the ureters and part of urethra

Glandular epithelium

 cells that are specialized to ______and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids

 ______= 1 or more cuboidal or columnar cell

 ______

 salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands

Exocrine vs. Endocrine

 ______= secrete sub. into ducts that ______onto surfaces

– skin or linings of digestive tract

 ______= secrete sub. into tissue ______or ______

– hormones

Exocrine glands

 ______= release watery, protein-rich fluid by exocytosis

– salivary glands, sweat glands

 ______= lose small portions of their cell body during secretion

– mammary glands, ear wax

 ______= entire cell lysis (breaks apart) during secretion

– sebaceous glands of the skin

Serous vs. Mucous

 ______= typically watery with lots of enzymes

– lubrication

 ______= mucus

– digestive and respiratory systems

– protection

Connective Tissues

Connective Characteristics

 ______, support, ______, fill spaces, store ______, produce blood cells

 widely distributed throughout body

 most have a good ______supply

 cells are ______apart than in epithelium

 plenty of ______matrix

– fibers and a ground substance (solid to semisolid)

Major Cell Types

 fixed cells

– ______(fiber builder)= most common; large, star-shaped; produce fibers

– ______cells = large; located near blood vessel; release heparin (prevents blood ______) and histamine (______and allergies)

 ______cells

– ______(large eater) = carry on phagocytosis

Connective Tissue Fibers

 fibroblast produce 3 types of fibers

– collagenous, elastic, and reticular

– ______and ______most abundant

 collagenous fibers = great ______strength (resist pulling force)

– ______(muscle to bone) and ______(bone to bone)

– found in ______connective tissues

– a.k.a. ______fibers b/c appear white when grouped together

 elastic fibers = ______easily

– thin fibers that ______

– not as strong as collagenous, but return to ______shape after stretching

– a.k.a. ______fibers

 reticular fibers = ______support (like a spider’s web)

– thin ______fibers

– highly branched

2 Types of Connective Tissue

 connective tissue ______

– ______connective tissue, ______tissue, and dense connective tissue

 ______connective tissue

– ______, bone, ______

Loose Connective Tissue

 a.k.a. ______tissue

 bind ______together and holds tissue fluid

 main cell type = ______

 extracellular matrix = ______-like w/ many collagenous and ______fibers

 beneath ______, between ______, beneath epithelial tissues

Adipose Tissue

 a.k.a. ______

 protects, ______, and stores fat

 specialized loose connective tissue

– ______(fat cells) store fat droplets with their cytoplasm and enlarge

 beneath skin, around kidneys, behind ______, surface of the ______

Dense Connective Tissue

 binds ______together

 cells = few fibroblasts

 extracellular matrix = closely packed, thick collagenous fibers and a network of elastic fibers

 ______blood supply (heals ______)

 tendons, ligaments, deeper layer of skin

Cartilage

 cells = ______(cartilage cells)

 extracellular matrix = ______, gel-like with collagenous fibers

 chondrocytes group together in ______

 ______(around the cartilage) surrounds cartilaginous structures

– blood supply to cartilage

 torn cartilage heals ______

Cartilage – 3 types

 3 types based on ______matrix

– hyaline, ______, fibrocartilage

 hyaline

– fine ______fibers

– supports, ______, provides framework

– ______, ends of bones, rings in the walls of respiratory passages

 elastic

– dense ______fibers

– supports, protects, provides ______framework

– ______(external ear) and parts of ______(voice box)

 fibrocartilage

– ______tissue, many collagenous fibers

– supports, protects, absorbs ______

– between ______, knee, ______girdle

Bone

 cells = ______(bone cells)

 extracellular matrix = ______, full of collagenous fibers, mineral ______provide hardness

 matrix forms ______circles

 good ______supply (heals ______)

 supports, protects, provides ______, produces ______cells

 bones of skeleton

Blood

 ______= formed ______+ ______

– cells (formed elements) = ______, ______, platelets

– matrix = ______(watery)

 transports ______, helps maintain homeostasis

 throughout body with a closed system of blood vessels and heart chambers

Muscle & Nervous Tissues

Muscle Tissue Characteristics

 able to ______in response to specific stimuli

 ______

 attached to bones, in the walls of hollow internal organs, heart

 3 types

– ______, smooth, ______

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

 a.k.a. ______

 found attached to ______

 each cell has many nuclei

 striations

 ______control

 move head, trunk, limbs, facial expression, laughing, singing, chewing, swallowing, talk, breathe

Smooth Muscle Tissue

 a.k.a. ______

 found in the walls of hollow organs

– stomach, intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, blood vessels

 1 ______per cell

 no striations

 ______-shaped cells

 involuntary control

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

 a.k.a. ______

 found in ______ONLY

 1 ______per cell

 ______cells

 striations

 involuntary control

Nervous Tissue

 transmit ______for coordination, regulation, integration, and sensory reception

 ______, spinal cord, ______

 cells connect to each other and to other body parts

 nerve cells called ______