Name ______Date ______

Period ______

Cellular Respiration Review

Short Answer.

1. What six-carbon molecule begins glycolysis, and what three-carbon molecules are

produced at the end of glycolysis? _Glucose starts and pyruvate (pyruvic acid) ends glycolysis.

2. What condition must exist for the cell to engage in fermentation? ______

______There must be an absence of oxygen.

3. How is the synthesis of ATP in the electron transport chain of the mitochondria similar

to the synthesis of ATP in chloroplasts? __Both mechanisms rely on an electron transport chain that moves electrons through proteins which causes hydrogen ions to be pumped to a concentrated area on one side of a membrane. Likewise both systems rely on the passive transport of those hydrogen ions from high to low, following a concentration gradient through ATP synthase.

4. What role does oxygen play in aerobic respiration? What molecule does oxygen

become a part of as a result of aerobic respiration? __Oxygen is the final electron acceptor of those electrons that pass through the ETC. Oxygen immediately bonds with hydrogens forming water. Water is produced as byproduct of aerobic respiration. _

5. A researcher estimates that, in a certain organism, the complete metabolism of glucose

produces 32 molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose. The energy released

from the total oxidation of glucose under standard conditions is 686 kcal/mol. The

energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP inorganic phosphate under

standard conditions is 7.3 kal/mol. Calculate the amount of enrgy available from the

hydrolysis of 32 moles of ATP. Calculate the efficiency of total ATP productions

from 1 mole of glucose in the organism.

Hydrolysis of 32 moles of ATP = 32x7.3 = 233.6 kcal

Efficiency of total ATP Production = 233.6/686 x 100 = 34%

6. Sometimes protons leak out of a cell or are used for other purposes besides ATP

production. How would this affect the production of ATP in aerobic respiration?

____If H+ were to escape in any appreciable manner then the efficiency of ATP production would decrease. Since less H+ would be available to move from one side of the inner membrane to the other (from inner membrane space to matrix) through ATP synthase the concentration gradient would not be as steep. ATP production should slow.

True or False.

For Questions 7–12, write True if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true.

True 7. Glycolysis provides the pyruvic acid molecules used in


NAD+ 8. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue by providing the

NADPH needed to accept high-energy electrons.

anaerobic 9. Fermentation is an aerobic process.

cytoplasm 10. Fermentation occurs in the mitochondria of cells.

True 11. Alcoholic fermentation gives off carbon dioxide and is used in

making bread.

True 12. Most organisms perform fermentation using a chemical reaction

that converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid.

13. Complete the table comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

A Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
Aspect / Photosynthesis / Cellular Respiration
Function / energy capture / Energy Release
Location of reactions / chloroplasts / Cytoplasm and Mitochondrion
Reactants / CO2, Water and Light / Glucose and Oxygen
Products / Glucose and Oxygen / Water, CO2 and Energy (ATP)