Study Guide for Test on Nonrenewable Energy

Be able to define work, energy and power. Know the following formulas: Power = Energy/Time. Also, be able to rewrite the equation to solve for energy. Know that joules, watt-hours, calories, and BTU’s (British Thermal Units) are units of work or energy. Know that the watt (which equals 1 joule/second) is a unit of power.

Know the following metric prefixes: kilo (103), mega (106), giga (109), tera 1012)

Be able to perform dimensional analysis to solve energy/power problems, like the AP Free Response questions. All necessary conversion factors will be provided.

Be able to explain the difference between primary, secondary and tertiary oil recovery. Explain which type of recovery has the highest net energy ratio. Be able to explain advantages and disadvantages of oil.

Be able to explain the basic process of crude oil refining of separating the different components of crude oil.

Be able to explain what CAFE standards are. Know what the current CAFE standards are for cars and light trucks/SUV’s and what they will increase to by 2025.

Be able to define oil sand (tar sand) and oil shale. Be able to explain how the net energy ratios of these sources of oil compare to traditional oil. Know countries that have large reserves of these fossil fuels. Be able to explain additional environmental impacts of using these sources of oil. Be able to define overburden, spoil and tailings.

Know about the effects of oil spills. Know about methods to clean-up oil spills. Know that using a double hulled boat is one strategy to reduce the likelihood of a spill due to a shipping accident, and know reasons why actions to require double-hulled boats have not been fully effective.

Know the basics of the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (general location, basic cause, scale of spill)

Be able to name the main component of natural gas. Know that natural gas is often found above oil deposits (conventional natural gas). Know countries with large natural gas reserves. . Know the advantages and disadvantages of natural gas. Be able to explain the basic process of the new extraction technique of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and some concerns about this process.

Know about unconventional natural gas deposits such as methane hydrates.

Be able to compare the different heat, carbon and sulfur contents of the 3 types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite.)

Explain the basic process of how electricity is produced from coal.

Be able to define isotope. Be able to explain that different ratios of protons to neutrons in the nucleus of an atom may be either stable or unstable (radioactive). Be able to define nuclear fission. Understand that energy is released in the process.

Be able to define half-life. Be able to calculate the fraction of an isotope that will remain, given the half-life of the radioactive isotope. Be able to explain the shape of a graph of time versus percentage of a radioactive isotope remaining.

Be able to define alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. For gamma rays, be able to explain where it falls on the electromagnetic spectrum (relative frequency, energy and wavelength). Be able to explain which type of ionizing radiation can be blocked by a sheet of paper, by a piece of wood and which can only be blocked by thick concrete or lead. Be able to define ionizing radiation. Be able to explain the effect of distance on radiation intensity (know basic relationship and shape of graph).

Know the primary sources of radiation for human exposure and what the typical annual dose is for Americans. Know the shape of the graph for distance from source vs. radiation.

Be able to define nuclear chain reaction. Be able to name the 2 main isotopes used for nuclear power. Be able to describe the basic process of producing electricity in a nuclear power plant. Know the key parts of a nuclear power plant

Know about the major nuclear power plant accidents (Fukushima Dai-chi in Japan, Three Mile Island in the US and Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union) and issues of nuclear weapons production at Hanford.

Know the Price-Anderson Act.

Know about current usage of nuclear power. Which country gets the highest percentage of electricity from nuclear power? Which country produces the largest amount of electricity from nuclear power? Which country produces the most waste from nuclear power? What is the history of nuclear power production in the US?

Be able to explain the difference between short-term and long-term radioactive nuclear waste and the issues with storage of each. Know what countries like France are doing to reprocess waste and the limitations and dangers of this approach.

Be able to explain the issues surrounding the Yucca Mountain Repository, including the controversies behind the site selection, the advantages and disadvantages of having a large scale repository for most of the countries’ nuclear waste and considerations for site selection.

Be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power.

Be able to define nuclear fusion. Be able to explain where nuclear fusion occurs and possibilities for fusion as a future energy source.