ERS 474/674 “EcoHealth Perspectives”

Instructor: Neil Arya, email:

Tutor: Jessica Kwik, email:


Week 1: Introduction and Assessing Evidence

“Toward a healthy future. Second report on the health of Canadians”. (1999). The Federal, Provincial and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health.

Rapport, D.J. (1995) Ecosystem health: Exploring the territory. Ecosystem Health, 1(1), 5-13. (hard copy)

Howard, John (2005). Ecosystem Health. Alternatives Journal, 31(3): 10.

Week 2: Epidemiology and Risk

Arya, N. (Burthold, G.R., ed.) (2007) Chapter 1: Applications of science-based decision making: Medicine, environment, and international affairs. In Psychology of Decisionmaking…Nova Science Publishers, Inc., p. 1-5.

Moochhala S, Shahi G, Cote I. The role of epidemiology, controlled clinical studies and Toxicology in defining environmental risks. in International Perspectives on Environment, Development and Health. Ed: Shahi, Levy, Binger,Kjellstrom and Lawrence. Springer Publishing. 1997, p341-348.

Brown P. Popular Epidemiology.Environment.1993;35(8):16-41

Yassi, A et al. (1999) Applying an Ecosystem Approach to the Determinants of Health in Centro Habana. Ecosystem Health, 5(1), 3-19.

Calver, M.C. (2000) Lessons from preventive medicine for the precautionary principle and ecosystem health. Ecosystem Health, 6(2), 99-107.

Blettner M, Heuer C, Razum O. Critical reading of epidemiological papers: a guide. European Journal of Public Health. 2001;11:97-101.


McMichael, A.J. and R.S. Kovats. (2000) Global environmental changes and health approaches to assessing risks. Ecosystem Health, 6(1), 59-66.

Rapport, D.J. (1999) Epidemiology and ecosystem health: natural bridges. Ecosystem Health 5(3), 174-180.

Week 3: Toxicology; Safe Food and Water

Guillette E, Meza M, Aquilar M, Soto A, Garcia I. An anthropological approach to the evaluation of preschool children exposed to pesticides in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives.1998;106(6):347-53.

Middlestaedt, M. (2007 October 27) Asbestos shame. Globe and Mail.

“Millennium Ecosystem Assessment” (2005) Web site:

“UN Millennium Development Goals” (2005) United Nations, Web site:

Steve McColl video

David Cole video

Week 4: Environment and Illness

"Case Study #1: Standard-Setting for Lead - The Cautionary Tale," in Kathleen Cooper, et al, Environmental Standard Setting and Children's Health (Toronto: CELA and Ontario College of Family Physicians, May 25, 2000), pp. 227-244. Available at:

Trasande L, Landrigan PJ. The National Children's Study: a critical national investment. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112(14):A789-90.

PSR Environmental Health Screening GB Schettler

Week 5: Zoonoses and emerging diseases

“Pandemic preparedness” (2007). World Health Organization. Web site:

The Canadian Pandemic Influenza Plan for the Health Sector. (2006). Public Health Agency of Canada.

Arya, N. et al. (2007). Time for an ecosystem approach to public health? Lessons from two infectious disease outbreaks in Canada. [in press: Global Public Health]

Parkes, M. , R. Panelli, P. Weinstein. (2003) Converging Paradigms for Environmental Theory and Practice. Environmental Health Perspectives: 111 (5): 669 – 675.

Parkes, M. et al. (2005). All hands on deck: transdisciplinary approaches to emerging infectious disease. EcoHealth. 2: 258-272.

VanLeeuwen, J. et al. (1999) Evolving models of human health towards an ecosystem context. Ecosystem Health 5(3): 204-219.

Global IDEA Scientific Advisory Committee. (2004). Health and economic benefits of an accelerated program of research to combat infectious disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171 (10): 1203-1208.

SARS Report


DWT video

Week 6: Global environmental health issues; case studies

McMichael, A.J. (2001) Human culture, ecological change, and infectious disease: Are we experiencing history’s fourth great transition? Ecosystem Health 7(2), 107-115.

Haines A, Patz J. Health Effects of Climate Change. JAMA. 2004;291:99-103

Fields S. Why Africa’s climate change burden is greater. Env Health Persp. 2005;113(8):A534-7

Burnett, R.T. et al. (2000) Population health issues in the management of air quality. Ecosystem Health 6 (1), 67-78.

IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 7-22.

“Millennium Ecosystem Assessment” (2005) Web site:

“UN Millennium Development Goals” (2005) United Nations, Web site:

Another air quality Global Health curriculum

Week 7: Reading week

Week 8: Urbanization and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report

Guidotti, T.L. (1995) Perspective on the health of urban ecosystems. Ecosystem Health 1(3), 141-149.

Bray, R., C. Vakil, D. Elliott. (2005) Report on Public Health and Urban Sprawl in Ontario. Available at :

Curitiba reading from book

Week 9: Public Health Units and Environmental Health; Greening Health Care

Arya, Neil, Zigby, Jean.(2005). Greening Health Care.Alternatives Journal,31(3),16-17.

Fins, J.J. (1995) The hospital as ecosystem. Ecosystem Health 1(4), 255-259.



Lion's Gate assessment

? Margot Bill Rees suggestion

Week 10: Healthy community approaches; International regulation

Hancock, T. (1997) Ecosystem health, ecological iatrogenesis, and sustainable human development. Ecosystem Health 3(4), 228-234.

Hancock, T. (1998) Caveat partner: reflections on partnership with the private sector. Health Promotion International. 13(3) 193-195

Alma Ata

Ottawa Charter

Week 11: Risk and Value; The example of pesticide policy

McClenaghan, Theresa, Cooper, Kathleen.(2005). Ban Stands [pesticide bans].Alternatives Journal,31(2),23-25. Retrieved November 9, 2007, from CBCA Completedatabase. (Document ID:867135211).

Sanborn, M, D. Cole, K. Kerr, C. Vakil, L.H. Sanin, K. Bassil, M. Weselak. (2004) Pesticide Literature Review. Ontario College of Family Physicians. Available at:

Cantox Health Sciences International (2004) Safety evaluation of pesticides – An analysis of the Ontario College of Family Physicians pesticides literature review. Prepared for CropLife Canada. Available at

Sanborn, M. D. Cole, A. Abelsohn, E. Weir. (2002) Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects 4. pesticides. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 166(11): 1431-1436.

UK Advisory Committee on Pesticides 2004. (accessed November 2007). Advisory Committee on Pesticides Statement on the Pesticides Literature Review published by the Ontario College of Family Physicians.

Ibid. Advisory Committee on Pesticides: Minority Statement on the Pesticides Literature Review Published by the Ontario College of Family Physicians.

Ibid. Response from the authors of the Ontario report.

City of Toronto (2002). Toronto’s Pesticide by-law and natural lawn and garden care. Web site:

City of Ottawa (2005). Memo.

Downs, G. (unknown date). Disagreements amongst members of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides over the safety of pesticides continues with the publication of Minority Statement. Available at:

Need to left click to access this or access from main web site.

Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada. 17 November 2005.

“Pesticide Management Regulatory Agency” web site:

Pesticides and Human Health by Dr. Kelly Martin

Arya Neil CJPH

Sanborn et al Canadian Family Physician

Week 12: Change Management

John Howard

Prochasta and Stages of Change

John Last Fouling and Cleansing