Name: ______

**SOL Review - (SOL 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2): Scientific Investigation and Measurement**

## Scientific Investigation

1. Identify each measurement.

Mass - amount of matter in an object

Volume – amount of space taken up

Density – amount of matter in a given space

2. How are mass and weight different?

*Mass is determined by matter; weight is determined by gravity*

3. What number is the metric system based?

10

4a. List the metric prefixes in order from largest to smallest. What number does each prefix represent?

*Kilo(10000),Hecto(100),Deca(10),Base(1),Deci(1/10), Centi (1/100), Milli (1/1000)*

4b. Metric Conversions

1 km = ___1000______meters

1000 mL= ___1______Liters

7 kg= _7,000,000_ milligrams

5. What does each metric unit measure?

a. Seconds -Time

b. Celsius, Kelvin - Temperature

c. meters, centimeters, kilometers - Distance

d. grams, millligrams, or kilograms - Mass

e. Liters, milliliters – Volume (Liquid)

f. Cubic centimeters (cm3) – Volume (Solid)

g. grams/cm3, grams/mL - Density

6. What does each instrument or formula measure?

a. Stopwatch - Time

b. Thermometer - Temperature

c. Metric Ruler - Distance

d. Triple Beam Balance - Mass

e. Graduated Cylinder – Volume

f. Length x Width x Height – Volume(Solid)

g. Mass divided by Volume – Density

7a. When measuring a very small quantity what prefix would you add to the basic unit?

Centi or Milli

7b. When measuring a very large quantity what prefix would you add to the basic unit?

Kilo

8. How do find the volume of an irregular shaped object?

Water displacement

Example: A ring is dropped into a graduated cylinder that contains 20 mL of water. If the water level rises to 25 mL, what is the volume of the ring?

5 mL

9. What is the best point of view when reading the water level of a graduated cylinder?

*Eye level, lowest point of the curve*

10. Which of these graduated cylinders would give you the most precise measurement?

C is correct below

a. numbered by 5 with no marks in between

b. numbered by 10 with four marks in between

c. numbered by 5 with four marks in between

11. What is the density of each?

a. Mass = 40 grams, Volume = 20 mL

2 g/mL

b. Mass = 8 grams, Volume = 10 cm3

0.8 g/cm3

**Scientific Investigation**

12. What is a hypothesis?

Educated Guess

13. How should a hypothesis always be written?

IF/THEN STATEMENT

14a. What is the purpose of the test group?

Test Hypothesis

14b. What is the purpose of the control group?

Used to make a comparison

15. What is the name of the parts of an experiment that do NOT change from group to group?

Constants

16. What is the name of the parts of an experiment that do change from group to group?

Variables

17. How many variables should you have when you start an experiment?

One

18a. What is the independent variable?

The Cause

18b. What are 3 simple ways to identify the independent variable?

1. x-axis

2. after “if” in the hypothesis

3. changes 1st

19a. What is the dependent variable?

The Effect

19b.What are 3 simple ways to identify the dependent variable?

1. y-axis

2. after “then” in the hypothesis

3. changes last

20. What are some things you can do to improve any experiment?

Repeat the experiment

Start with only one variable

Use a fair sample size

Use a control group

Graphing

21. What type of graph would you use to represent each of the following?

a. changes over time - line

b. percents of the whole - pie

c. total amounts or averages - bar

*** On the SOL TEST always make sure the graph represents the data given!!!