Biology 11 Cell Biology Study Questions

Cell Theory

• All ______are made of one or more ______

• A cell is the smallest unit of ______

• All cells come from ______cells

What is a “Cell”?

• All cells have a ______membrane surrounding them

• All cells have either a ______or a ______region

• All cells have ______containing ______

Prokaryotic Cells

• Bacterial and ______cells are called “______,”

meaning “before the nucleus”

• Prokaryotic cells have no ______surrounding their


• Prokaryotes still have ______scattered through their


Eukaryotic Cells

• Eukaryotic (“true nucleus”) cells contain ______that are

enclosed by ______

• Eukaryotic cells are found in ______, plants, fungi, and protists

Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles

• A ______is a membrane sac that controls access to the ______

• Mitochondria have enzymes for ______release through respiration

• Ribosomes (“free” or attached to membranes) synthesize ______

• The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ______proteins and helps

make lipids

• ______bodies also modify proteins, sort and ship proteins, and

prepare substances to become secretions

• Lysosomes ______material in the cell

• ______vesicles carry materials between organelles, or toand-

from the cell’s ______

• The ______gives the cell shape and ______

• Photosynthetic cells contain ______for food production and


• Central ______and a cell ______are found in

many plants, fungi, and protistans, but not in animals

The Nucleus

• The nucleus contains DNA which is the ______for synthesizing proteins

• The nuclear envelope is a ______membrane, each

consisting of a ______of phospholipids

• The nucleolus is where ______are formed

The Cytomembrane System

• The ER is a collection of membranous ______and flattened sacs

• ER is described as “______” or “______” depending on

whether or not it is covered in ______

• The two types of ___ serve different functions in protein & lipid formation

• Golgi Bodies look like flattened sacs of membrane, with

______budding off the edges

• The Golgi ______proteins and lipids to prepare them to

exit the cell (as ______)

• Lysosomes are vesicles that contain powerful ______enzymes

• Lysosomes are used by single-celled organisms to digest ______

• Lysosomes also help during ______of amphibians


• Mitochondria are the main organelles for transferring ______from

carbohydrates to ATP in ______conditions

• Mitochondria may have evolved from ______

• Mitochondria contain folded inner membranes called ______


• Any colored plastid is called a ______

• ______(the most famous plastids) perform photosynthesis

• Chromoplasts give ______to the leaves, petals, and fruits of plants

• Colorless plastids (______) store ______

• Structurally, chloroplasts contain inner membrane disks called

______, and a liquid called ______

• Grana contain ______, including chlorophyll

• Chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from ______

The Cytoskeleton

• The cytoskeleton is made up of proteins assembled into

______and ______

• ______and ______are microtubules used for

locomotion and other motion

• ______are a special Microtubule Organizing Center

(MTOC) that controls animal cell ______

• MTOCs also help the cell to ______normally

Cell Wall

• Most cells have a cell wall (______cells do not)

• Cell walls are ______“boxes” that support the cell

• ______in the wall allow materials to pass through

• Cell walls are made of ______

Short answers.

1.  You examine an unknown cell under the microscope and discover that the cell contains chloroplasts. What type of organism could you infer that the cell came from? Support.

2.  Other than the nucleus, which tow organelles contain their own DNA? What explanation has Lynn Marguilis proposed to account for the presence of DNA in these organelles?

3.  Determine if each of the following is true of Free or Bound ribosomes

______Produce proteins for use within the cell

______Produce proteins for export

______Attached to the rough ER

______Suspended in the cytoplasm

______Consist of 2 subunits

______Composed of rRNA and proteins

4. How does the function of the central vacuole in plant cells differ from the function of

vacuoles in animal cells?


6. Place the correct letter from the diagram above in the space in the following table.

The rest of 6……