COUNTRY LEVEL EVALUATION Maldives

COUNTRY LEVEL EVALUATION
Maldives
Draft Final Report
VOLUME II: ANNEXES
26th November 2010
Evaluation carried out on behalf of the European Commission Framework contract for
Multi-country thematic and regional/country-level strategy evaluation studies and synthesis in the area of external co-operation
Italy
LOT 4:
Evaluation of EC geographic co-operation strategies for countries/regions in Asia, Latin America, the Southern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe (the area of the New Neighbourhood Policy)
Aide à la Décision Economique
Belgium
Ref.: EuropeAid/122888/C/SER/Multi
Particip GmbH
Germany
Evaluation of the European
Commission‟s Co-operation with
Maldives
Deutsches Institut für
Entwicklungspolitik
Germany
Country Level Evaluation
Contract n° EVA 2007/geo-non-ACP
Overseas Development Institute
United Kingdom
Draft Final Report
VOLUME II: ANNEXES
European Institute for Asian Studies
Belgium
Instituto Complutense de Estudios
Internacionales
Spain
A consortium of DRN, ADE, Particip, DIE, ODI, EIAS ICEI c/o
DRN, leading company:
Headquarters
November 2010
Via Ippolito Nievo 62
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This report has been prepared by the consortium DRN,
ADE, Particip, DIE, ODI, EIAS ICEI.
mail@drn network.com
Belgium office
The opinions expressed in this document represent the views of the authors, which are not necessarily shared by the European Commission or by the authorities of the countries concerned.
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Tel: +32-2-732-4607
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bruxelles@drn-network.com Evaluation of the European Commission‟s Cooperation with Maldives
Country Level Evaluation
The report consists of two volumes:
VOLUME I: DRAFT FINAL REPORT
VOLUME II: ANNEXES
VOLUME I: DRAFT FINAL REPORT
0. Executive Summary
1. Introduction
2. Evaluation Process and Methodology
3. EC strategy and Co-operation with the Maldives
4. Responses to the Evaluation Questions
5. Conclusions
6. Recommendations
VOLUME II: ANNEXES
Annex 1 The Country Context
Annex 2 Statistical data
Annex 3 Overview of evaluation questions and judgment criteria
Annex 4 Findings of the evaluation questions, judgment criteria and indicators
Annex 5 List of documents
Annex 6 List of persons contacted
Annex 7 Itinerary
Annex 8 Indicative map of EC support activities and travel route
Annex 9 Guiding questions for interviews
Annex 10 PowerPoint presentation Status and versions of the document
Version Date Status Validation by Date of provided validation
126.06.2010 Draft
220.09.2010 2nd Draft
312.11.2010 3rd Draft
426.11.2010 Final
The evaluation team was composed of: Dieter Nill
(Team leader), Valerie McDonnell-Lenoach, Joseph
Kuitems and Sylvia Tag, who was also the evaluation manager.
The evaluation is being managed by the Joint
Evaluation Unit (EuropeAid, DG DEV and DG Relex).
The authors accept sole responsibility for this report, drawn up on behalf of the Commission of the European
Communities. The report does not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission. COUNTRY LEVEL EVALUATION – MALDIVES
DRN-ADE-Particip-DIE-ODI-EIAS-ICEI
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Annex)
Annex 1 The Country Context .......................................................................................................1
1.1 Political system.......................................................................................................................1
1.2 Legislation and good governance ..........................................................................................2
1.3 Economy and Trade ...............................................................................................................2
1.4 Social situation .......................................................................................................................5
1.5 Environment ...........................................................................................................................5
1.6 The tsunami as a major impact ..............................................................................................6
Annex 2 Statistical data .................................................................................................................9
Annex 3 Overview of evaluation questions and judgment criteria...............................................11
Annex 4 Findings of the evaluation questions, judgment critera and indicators .........................13
4.1 TO WHAT EXTENT DO EC COUNTRY STRATEGIES AND INDICATIVE
PROGRAMMES REFLECT THE DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES OF THE GOVERNMENT OF MALDIVES AND THE NEEDS OF THE POPULATION? (EQ
1)...........................................................................................................................................13
4.1.1 EC strategies and indicative programmes are aligned to national policies and strategies (JC 1.1)...........................................................................................................13
4.1.2 EC objectives and programmes coherently deducted from good quality
contextual analysis (JC 1.2)............................................................................................22
4.1.3 Local stakeholders/ „beneficiaries‟ ideas are integrated in the formulation and implementation of the strategies and programmes (JC 1.3)...........................................26
4.2 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC-SUPPORT CONTRIBUTED TO REPAIR
LONG-TERM DAMAGE AND TO IMPROVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
SERVICES ON SUPPORTED ISLANDS? (EQ 2) ...............................................................31
4.2.1 Food security and economic livelihoods of affected households recovered (JC
2.1) ..................................................................................................................................31
4.2.2 Improved access to social programmes and services (i.e. health, education) on
supported islands (JC 2.2) ..............................................................................................37
4.2.3 Drug abuse has reduced with EC support (JC 2.3) ........................................................39
4.2.4 Gender, good governance/human rights and environment issues are reflected
by EC intra-regional and community development programmes (JC 2.4)......................41
4.3 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC-SUPPORT CONTRIBUTED TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR THE POPULATION OF THE MALDIVES
AND REDUCED THE LONG-TERM VULNERABILITY OF THE ISLANDS TO
NATURAL DISASTERS? (EQ 3)..........................................................................................43
4.3.1 Better integration of environmental aspects (including climate change
adaptation and disaster risk reduction) into GoM‟s policies and planning (JC
3.1) ..................................................................................................................................43
4.3.2 Negative environmental impacts of post-tsunami are mitigated (JC 3.2) .......................45
4.3.3 Gender and good governance/human rights aspects are mainstreamed into EC
environment programmes (JC 3.3) .................................................................................52
4.4 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC-SUPPORT TOWARDS IMPROVING LOCAL
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HELPED THE GOM TO BUILD A MORE
DIVERSIFIED AND COMPETITIVE EXPORT SECTOR FOR THE INTERNATIONAL MARKETS? (EQ 4).................................................................................54
4.4.1 Fisheries sector recovered from economic loss (JC 4.1)................................................54
4.4.2 Tourism sector recovered from economic loss (JC 4.2) .................................................56
4.4.3 Export industries diversified with EC support (JC 4.3)....................................................58
4.4.4 EC support has helped to prepare Maldives for LDC graduation (JC 4.4) .....................59
4.4.5 Gender, human rights and environment issues are taken into consideration by
EC local economic development programmes (JC 4.5)..................................................62 i
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4.5 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC-SUPPORT TOWARDS IMPROVING TRADE
CAPACITY HELPED THE GOM TO FULFILL ITS INTERNATIONAL
COMMITMENTS? (EQ 5) .................................................................................................... 63
4.5.1 EC support has improved GoM capacities to effectively fulfill its international
commitments (JC 5.1)..................................................................................................... 63
4.5.2 Gender, human rights and environment issues are taken into consideration by
EC trade programmes (JC 5.2) ...................................................................................... 65
4.6 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC SUPPORT IMPROVED THE GOVERNANCE
OF LOCAL AND CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS AND THE POLITICAL
PARTICIPATION OF CIVIL SOCIETY? (EQ 6)................................................................... 66
4.6.1 EC support has facilitated democratic elections (JC 6.1)............................................... 66
4.6.2 Progress in EC-supported implementation of reforms related to good
governance and democratisation (JC 6.2)...................................................................... 72
4.6.3 Progress in strengthening civil society/non-state actors dialoguing with GoM (JC
6.3).................................................................................................................................. 78
4.6.4 Progress in empowering the capacity of women (JC 6.4).............................................. 81
4.6.5 Gender and environment issues are taken into consideration by EC good
governance programmes (JC 6.5).................................................................................. 86
4.7 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS EC SUPPORT PROVIDED UNDER THE RRM AND TIP
AFTER THE TSUNAMI FLEXIBLY RESPONDED TO POST-TSUNAMI
REQUIREMENTS FOLLOWING AN APPROACH OF LINKING RELIEF,
REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT? (EQ 7)............................................................. 88
4.7.1 RRM and/or TIP enabled the rebuilding of social structure and community
development (JC 7.1) ..................................................................................................... 88
4.7.2 RRM and/or TIP capacitated state and civil society to reassume their roles and utilise the tsunami created window-of-opportunity for development, disaster risk
reduction, and climate change (JC 7.2).......................................................................... 94
4.7.3 RRM and/or TIP programmes were embedded into a co-ordinated and consistent LRRD strategy between emergency aid (ECHO) and mid- to long-
term development aid (JC 7.3) ..................................................................................... 106
4.8 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC SUPPORT TO MALDIVES BEEN CO-
ORDINATED, COHERENT WITH AND COMPLEMENTARY TO OTHER
POLICIES AND ACTIONS OF THE EC AND OTHER MEMBER STATES' AND DONORS' INTERVENTIONS? (EQ 8) .............................................................................. 113
4.8.1 EC support is co-ordinated with other Member States‟ and donors‟ interventions
(JC 8.1) ......................................................................................................................... 113
4.8.2 EC support complements other Member States and donors‟ activities (JC 8.2).......... 117
4.8.3 Support activities under the CSP programmes and other EC policies are
mutually compatible (JC 8.3) ........................................................................................ 120
4.9 TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE EC CHOICE OF AID MODALITIES, DELIVERY
CHANNELS AND IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES BEEN APPROPRIATE TO THE COUNTRY CONTEXT? (EQ 9) ......................................................................................... 124
4.9.1 Mix of approaches and co-operation partners uses available implementing
capacities in the country (JC 9.1) ................................................................................. 124
4.9.2 EC support programmes are managed efficiently (JC 9.2) .......................................... 132
Annex 5 List of documents........................................................................................................ 144
Annex 6 List of persons contacted............................................................................................ 152
Annex 7 Itinerary....................................................................................................................... 157
Annex 8 Indicative Map of EC support activities and travel route ............................................ 160
Annex 9 Guiding questions for interviews (example of questions to GoM) .............................. 166
Annex 10 Powerpoint presentation............................................................................................. 168 ii
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List of figures
Figure 1: Development of the tourism sector ..................................................................................... 3
Figure 2: Development of fish catch in the Maldives ......................................................................... 4
List of tables
Table 1: Country profile...................................................................................................................... 9
Table 2: Relevant GoM strategies for the EC support during the period 1999 - 2009..................... 14
Table 3: Location, target population and size of planned IWMCs ................................................... 48
Table 4: Islands with IWMCs funded through the Community Livelihoods Programme.................. 49
Table 5: Project statistics ............................................................................................................... 139 iii
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Acronyms
AAP Annual Action Programme
ADB Asian Development Bank
AG Attorney General
ALA Council Regulation (EEC) 443/92, governing European Community financial and technical and economic co-operation with Asia and Latin
America
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASEM Asia Europe Meeting
CAT Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment
CBO Community-based Organisation
CC Climate Change
CCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
CECB Constituency Elections Complaints Bureaus
CEDAW UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against
Women
CERD International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination
CESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
CSO Civil Society Organisation
CSP Country Strategy Paper
DCI Development Co-operation Instrument
DCMP Drugs Control Master Plan
DER Department of External Resources (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
DFID Department for International Development (UK)
DG Directory General
DPH Department of Public Health
DRR Disaster Risk Reduction
DTIS Diagnostic Trade Integration Study
EBA Everything But Arms
EC European Commission
ECA Electoral Constituency Act
ECBs Elections Complaints Bureaux
ECD European Commission Delegation (in Colombo, Sri Lanka)
ECHO European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office
EIB European Investment Bank
EIF Extended Integrated Facilitator
EIHDR European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERC Environmental Research Centre
ERMS External Resources Management Section (MoFT)
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FLEGT Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade
FWC Framework Contract
GATS General Agreement on Trade and Services v
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GCCA Global Climate Change Alliance
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GEF Global Environment Facility
GoM Government of Maldives
GSP EC‟s Generalised System of Preferences
HQ Headquarters
IA Implementing Agency
ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IDA International Development Association
IDC Island Development Committee
IDP Internally Displaced Persons
IEC Information, Education, Communication
IF Integrated Framework
IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
IHDP Integrated Human Development Project
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
INGO International Non-Governmental Organisation
IPCC International Panel on Climate Change
ITS International Trade Institute of Singapore
IWDC Island Women Development Committee
IWMF Island Waste Management Facility
LDC Less Developed Country
LRRD Linking Relief to Rehabilitation and Development
MB Multi-purpose Building
MDG Millennium Development Goals
MDP Maldivian Democratic Party
MEMP Maldives Environmental Management Project
MIED Ministry for Economic Development
MIP Multi-annual Indicative Programme
MoAA Ministry of Atolls Administration
MoE Ministry of Education
MoEEW Ministry of Energy, Environment and Water
MoF Ministry of Finance
MoFAMR Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources
MoFT Ministry of Finance and Treasury
MP Member of Parliament
MPND Ministry of Planning and National Development
MTR Mid-Term Review of the Country Strategy Paper
MWASS Ministry of Women‟s Affairs and Social Security
NACB National Narcotics Control Bureau
NAPA National Adaptation Plan of Action
NDMC National Disaster Management Centre
NDP National Development Plan
NEAP National Environmental Action Plan
NECB National Elections Complaints Bureaux
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation vi
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NHRAP National Human Rights Action Plan
NIP National Indicative Programme
NNCP National Narcotics Control Bureau
NPM National Torture Preventive Mechanism
NRRP National Recovery and Reconstruction Plan
OCHA United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs
ODA Overseas Development Assistance
OPCAT Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel,
Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
PAS Public Accounting System
PCC Project Co-ordinating Committee
PCD Policy Coherence for Development
PEA Parliamentary Elections Act
PMC Project Management and Co-ordination Unit
PRC Project Review Committee
RBM Results-based Management
RDMO Regional Development Management Centre
Rf Maldives Rufiyaa
RFLS Revolving Fund Loan Scheme
RLC Residential Learning Centre
RRM Rapid Reaction Mechanism
RWMC Regional Waste Management Centre
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka)
SACEP South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme
SAFTA South Asian Free Trade Area1
SCP-Asia Sustainable Consumption and Production in Asian countries
SE School Extension
SEP Strategic Economic Plan
SHE Society for Health Education
SHI Self-help Initiatives
SKYS Society for Kurendhoo Youth Sports
SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures
SPT UN Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture
TA Technical Assistance
TIP Tsunami Indicative Programme
TM Transparency Maldives
TMP Tourism Master Plan
ToR Terms of Reference
TRRF Tsunami Relief and Rehabilitation Fund
TSIP Tsunami Safe Island Programme
UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UN United Nations
UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme for HIV/AIDS
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
1 Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka vii
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UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations International Children‟s Emergency Fund
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes
VTC Vocational Training Centre
WB World Bank
WDC Women Development Committee
WEC Women Entrepreneurs Council
WHO World Health Organisation
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organisation viii
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ANNEX 1 THE COUNTRY CONTEXT
1.1 Political system
After its independence from Britain in 1965, the Maldives has been a Republic since 1968 and has a parliamentary style of government with a strong executive. Under the former constitution, the President was both the Head of State and Head of Government. At the same time, he was Minister of Defence and National Security, Minister of Finance and Treasury and governed the national Monetary Authority. This was changed with the new constitution in 2008, where he only maintains the positions of Head of State and Head of Government. The new parliament, which took office in May 2009, consists of 77 elected members.
In 2004, a strong public demand for political reform followed by internal unrest led to the so called ‟Road Map for the Reform Agenda‟ in March 2006 containing a number of measures to strengthen the democratic system with a detailed implementing schedule. As a consequence, a new Constitution has been adopted on 7 August 2008 with a delay of one year. The first multi-party presidential elections took place in October 2008 under difficult circumstances, but permitted a peaceful change of the head of the state when the opposition candidate Mohamed Nasheed succeeded against President Maumoon Gayoom, who had held office since 1978.2 Parliamentary elections were held in 2009. Local elections, which will be the last step of a two years transition phase, are expected to be organised in the first half of 2010. Decentralisation reform plans are blocked politically since more than one year due to different perceptions pertaining to the regional level and contradictory interpretations of constitutional requirements.
The long term perspective of the country development of the Government of Maldives (GoM) is presented in its Vision 2020, which reflects the aspiration of the Maldives to develop and become ”a top-ranking middle-income developing nation with a diversified economy, high quality education and health services, social and equality, democratic governance, justice, peace and security” over the next 20 years.3
As a first step towards achieving the Vision 2020 objectives, GoM has produced its 6th
National Development Plan (NDP) 2001–2005. It presents broad strategic directions for identification of sectoral targets and policies, and identifies the planning and policy agenda along with the 2020 Vision Plan. The intra-regional development objective is to reduce the migration to Male and the disparities among islands by concentrating the population from environmentally vulnerable islands and those with less than 1,000 inhabitants on focus islands with better development potential. Migration is voluntary and encouraged by incentives. Under the Regional Development Policy, the 20 atolls were grouped into five development regions i.e. the 6th NDP defined the Northern and the Southern Development
Region for seven atolls and the Northern Central, the Central and the Southern Central
Development Regions were defined by the 7th NDP (2006-2010) to cover the remaining 13 atolls. The Development Regions are planned to be developed by five Regional Development Management Offices (RDMOs).
The Regional Development Policy was accompanied by the Population and Development
Consolidation (PDC) Policy to restructure the population on the islands. Of the 195 inhabited islands only 5 have a population of more than 4,000 people whereas 128 have less than
1,000 inhabitants and 16 have less than 200. Smaller communities have less access to social and economic services at a higher cost. Income and job opportunities are few in small islands causing the massive influx to Male.4
The regional development approach was further developed after the tsunami to create seven
Safe Host Islands, which are more developed in terms of disaster preparedness and social service provisions i.e. seawall defences, protected environmental areas, safe high grounds and better buildings to be implemented by 2012.
2 ToR CSP Maldives, Final; 29.9.2009
3 http://www.planning.gov.mv/contents/misc/vision2020.php
4 7th NDP 2006-2010, p. 25-27
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1.2 Legislation and good governance
The Republic of Maldives has a largely Muslim population and the country applies the Islamic Sharia law. The legal system of the Maldives is a mixture comprising Islamic laws, and the English common laws, many of which have been codified in the Civil Laws of the country. Personal law, which includes family and inheritance laws, is exclusively governed by
Sharia. According to the constitution of 1998, the judiciary was not independent but its members were appointed by the President, who could also revise High Court decisions. The 2008 constitution has provided for an independent judiciary and created for the first time a supreme court that has the final decision.
Women have the right to vote in all elections and are eligible for candidature to elected bodies and all public positions; since the new constitution women can be also candidate for the Head of State. The Maldives is a member of the UN Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and promote the increase of women as atoll chiefs, in islands‟ women‟s and atoll development committees. Provisions to protect women‟s rights are also contained in the Family Act of July 2001. However women‟s participation in political institutions is still low, e.g. their representation in the new parliament is only 6.5%.