Review w/Answers Chapter 7
proxy - power or authority that’s given to allow a person to act or speak for someone else
constitution - document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and
processes of a government
bill of rights - written list of freedoms that a government promises to protect
execute - to carry out fully
Articles of Confederation - 1st American constitution, passed in 1777,
which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states
cede - to give up
currency - money
Land Ordinance of 1785 - law setting up a system for settling the Northwest Territory
Northwest Ordinance - 1787 article that set up a government for the Northwest
Territory, guaranteed basic rights to settlers, and outlawed slavery there
depression - period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and
Shays’ Rebellion - 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes
drafting – drawing up a preliminary version
reluctant – showing hesitation or unwillingness
confederation – a group created for common action
resolve – to deal with something successfully
ordinance – a law set forth by a governmental authority
survey – to determine the form and extent of an area of land by taking measurements
township – a unit of local government
avert – to avoid
Constitutional Convention - gathering of state representatives on May 25, 1787,
to revise the Articles of Confederation
Virginia Plan - plan at the Constitutional Convention, favored by larger states
that called for a strong national government with three
branches and a two-chamber legislature
legislative branch – branch of government that passes laws
executive branch – branch of government that carries out laws
judicial branch – branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly
New Jersey Plan – plan at the Constitutional Convention, favored by smaller
states, that called for three branches of government with a single chamber legislature
compromise – settlement in which each side gives up some of its demands in
order to reach an agreement
Great Compromise – plan at the Constitutional Convention that settled the
differences between large and small states
Three-Fifths - agreement at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of
Compromise the slaves in any state be counted in its population
revise – alter something in the light of further evidence
volume – a book
flaring – expressing strong emotion; such as angry
assign – to give someone a specific task or purpose
endorse – to express support or approval of
Founding Fathers - James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and other leaders who
laid the groundwork for the United States
republic - system of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them
dictatorship - government in which one person or a small group holds complete authority
Magna Carta - 1215 British document that contains two basic ideas: Monarchs
themselves have to obey the laws, and citizens have basic rights
English Bill of Rights - 1689 document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens
habeas corpus - the right that no person can be held in prison without first being
charged with a specific crime
separation of powers - principle by which the powers of government are divided
among separate branches
devoted – characterized by loyalty and dedication
consult – to ask for the advice or opinion of another
free enterprise – the freedom of private business to organize, operate, and compete for profit without government interference
dependent – relying on another for support
will – a choice or determination of one having authority
contract – a binding agreement between two or more parties
essential – of the utmost importance
Federalist - supporter of the Constitution, who favored a strong federal government
Antifederalists - people who opposed the Constitution and a strong national gov’t
The Federalist Papers - series of essays by Federalists Madison, Hamilton and Jay
in support of ratifying the Constitution
amend - change
Bill of Rights - first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution
parchment barrier –
parchment - a stiff, flat, thin material made from the prepared skin of an animal and
used as a durable writing surface in ancient and medieval times
barrier - obstacle that prevents movement or access
imbalance – not in equal representation
pen name – fictitious name used by an author
spellbinding – holding the attention as if by magic
festive – joyful
compelled – forced
subsequent – following in order by time
1. Who were the leading delegates to the Constitutional Convention ?
Washington and Hamilton
2. List the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation…
a. no President (executive branch) to carry out laws
b. no court system (judicial branch) to settle disputes between states
c. money problems/debt/printing currency
d. foreign nations took advantage
3. Complete the Provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
a. Congress will appoint a resident governor, a secretary, and three judges to rule the territory.
b. When the territory has 5,000 free adult males, it may elect a legislature and send a nonvoting delegate to Congress
c. When the territory has a total free population of 60,000, it may write a constitution and submit it to Congress for approval.
d. the territory may be admitted as a state
4. The writers of the Constitution got the idea of natural human rights from which country’s traditions ? the English traditions
5. How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could become law ? 9 of 13
6. List the key issue during the process of ratifying the Constitution. the Bill of Rights
7. This list below summarizes some limitations of the national government under which plan?
- No executive branch
- No levying of taxes
- No regulation of trade
- No national court system
Articles of Confederation - AOC
8. What two examples were learned by the Founding Fathers from the Roman Republic ?
a. the value of public service
Excerpt from the Declaration of Independence
King George III has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent (approval) to laws for establishing judiciary powers.
9. What was included in the U.S. Constitution in order to deal with the grievance expressed above ?
the establishment of a Supreme Court
10. Which group demanded the Constitution spell out ways to protect people’s basic rights ?
11. What idea did the writers of the Constitution borrow from the Romans?
devotion to their republic
12. In 1787, James Madison and other Federalists supported a written plan for a new government. What did this plan call for ?
a stronger national government
13. Which British document gave the idea for an American Bill of Rights ?
14. What were the two main reasons that individual states wrote constitutions ?
a. to spell out the rights of citizens
b. set limits on government powers
15. Why did Antifederalists object to the Constitution ?
gave too much power to the national government
16. Which group argued that a strong national government could be effective and protect states’ rights ? Federalists“ A Bill of Rights was needed to protect such basic liberties as freedom of speech and religion”
17. Which convention leader would most likely agree with the statement above ?
House of Representatives Senate
•Number of representatives•Two members from each state
based on state population
18. The diagram above shows the compromise that helped guarantee the ratification of the U.S. Constitution by –
providing a plan for representation of both large and small states
19. How did the Bill of Rights become part of the Constitution ?
it was added through an amendment process
20. Which Enlightenment writer expressed the idea that the relationship between government and the people it governs is a social contract ? John Locke
21. What was the main reason Antifederalist, Patrick Henry, opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution ? it did not guarantee individual rights
22. List 3 issues that the writers had to compromise on in the Constitution.
a. the way in which slaves in southern states would be counted
b. the number of legislative representatives for each state
c. the addition of a Bill of Rights
23. List the parts of the Great Compromise that were agreed upon at the Constitutional Convention.
a. 3 branches
b. Lower house; HOR; seats would be awarded based on population
c. Upper house; Senate; 2 Senators for each state
24. Describe the Land Ordinance of 1785.
a. territory would be divided into townships
b. each township would be divided into 36 sections of 1 square mile each
c. Congress planned to sell sections to the settlers for $640
d. one section in every township was set aside to support public schools
25. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, new states admitted to the Union were considered…
equal to the existing 13 states
26. As a result of Shays’ Rebellion, Americans main goal for calling the Constitutional Convention was to…
revise the Articles of Confederation (AOC)
27. What did Ben Franklin and James Madison have in common ?
both were delegates to the Constitutional Convention
28. List the 2 basic ideas of the 1215 Magna Carta document.
a. people have certain guaranteed rights
b. the monarchs must obey the laws
29. Which Enlightenment writer thought government powers should be clearly defined and divided ?
Baron de Montesquieu“ So long as any individual state has the power to defeat the measures of the other twelve, our pretended union is but a name…..” Noah Webster, New England schoolteacher
30. Describe Noah Webster’s position/beliefs when he said the above quotation.
individual states have too much power to form a true union
31. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could…
a. appoint military officers/raise army
b. declare war
c. be responsible for foreign affairs/sign treaties
d. coin money
32. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could NOT…
a. tax the states to raise money
b. regulate trade between states and foreign countries
c. pass laws if not approved by 9 states
33. Define Federalism - written powers not specifically given to the federal gov’t are available to the
34. Describe the Point-of-View the authors of The Federalist Papers most agree ?
having a stronger central government will make the country more stable and prosperous
35. What two ways does the Constitution describes propose an amendment ?
1. two-thirds of both congressional houses vote in favor of proposing the amendment
2. three-fourths of state legislatures vote in favor of proposing the amendment
36. Why was the Northwest Ordinance is considered a historical milestone ?
established a method for admitting new states to the Union
37.What caused trade between the states become increasingly difficult ?
states printed their own money and it had little in other states
38.Why was the Northwest Ordinance created ?
it provided a way for territories to be created within a large region
39.What was the essential difference between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan ?
a. Virginia Plan wanted more power to go larger states
b. New Jersey wanted equality in vote to larger states
40.Which issue was agreed upon before the Great Compromise was created ?
three branches of government
41.What caused the Anti-federalist at the Constitutional Convention not
to sign the Constitution ?
- they were afraid it gave too much power given to the national government
- power of the individual states was too weak compared to the national government
42.What idea from Baron de Montesquieu most influenced American government ?
governmental powers should be equally separated to the 3 branches
43.What was considered the major strength of the Articles of Confederation ?
AOC gave states freedom to make decisions
44.After the Revolutionary war ended, what caused the demand for farm goods to decrease ?
an economic depression
45.Which historical document gave the Founding Fathers the ideas for parliamentary elections, right to bear arms, & right to habeas corpus ?
The English Bill of Rights
46. Describe the Bessemer Process – The mass-production of steel before the development of the open hearth furnace. The removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron.
Describe the Grain Drills – is a sowing device that positions seeds in the soil and then covers them top soil; also known as a seed drill
47. Know the Bill of Rights (1st Ten Amendments)
Amendment 1 –
Freedom of religion
Freedom of speech
Freedom of the press
Freedom of protest peacefully
Freedom of petition
Amendment 2 – right to bear arms
Amendment 3 – quartering soldiers
Amendment 4 – security from unreasonable search and seizures
Amendment 5 – due process of law
Amendment 6 – right to a free trial
Amendment 7 – trial by jury
Amendment 8 – fair bail and punishments
Amendment 9 – rights retained by the people
Amendment 10 – powers reserved to states and people
1 of Chapter 7 Review w/ Answers Sept 2016