Congratulate Yourselves for Staying with It!

Congratulate Yourselves for Staying with It!

Congratulate yourselves for staying with it!

Chapter 13

  • Calories in the past didn’t determine how much you ate; you ate until you consumed enough volume or weight of food to feel satisfied.
  • Therefore, if you eat foods that provide a lot of weight or volume (bulk) but not many calories, you will lose weight. The Mayo pyramid is designed to help you do just that using 6 food groups.
  • Vegetables and fruits are the foundation of the pyramid.
  • Whole grain carbohydrates are healthier than are refined (white flour) counterparts and in moderation can help you lose weight.
  • Lean sources of protein and dairy are also recommended in moderation to control your appetite and provide balanced nutrition.
  • Combining the above with good taste can still make eating enjoyable.
  • All foods contain calories (energy) and volume-the numbers varying from one type of food to another. Some foods higher in calories for a small amount and the reverse can be true for larger amounts of foods containing a smaller amount of calories. High density vs Low density; high fat foods, simple sugars, alcohol, fast foods, sodas, candies and processed foods vs fruits and vegetables. A candy bar vs 1 cup of raw vegetables for example.
  • Feeling full with less calories may appear a gimmick but is backed by science.
  • Feeling full in your stomach is really about the weight and volume in your stomach than the number of calories in it.
  • People following this type of low energy density foods lost more weight and kept it off.
  • Vegetables and fruits: are low in energy density.
  • Are low energy density. Usually about 25 calories. Contain no cholesterol, are low in fat and sodium and high in dietary fiber. High in essential minerals such as potassium and magnesium (common in the elderly). “Fresh is best”, frozen next and canned last since higher in sodium.


  • Contains seeds surrounded by an edible layer by definition such as oranges and peaches. Like vegetables, are a great source of fiber, vitamins, minerals and other healthy ingredients. Usually about 60 calories a serving and fat free. “Fresh is best”, with frozen next can canned in natural juice last. Raisins and other dried fruits are “nutrient dense” due to processing so use sparingly.
  • Most fruits and vegetables contain a lot of water providing weight and volume with lower calories like grapefruit which is 90% water. Most do not contain a lot of fat; fat raises the density and calories. 1 tsp. of butter contains the same calories as 2 cups of broccoli! Fiber is the part of plant based foods that your body does not absorb and bulk up your diet making you feel fuller sooner and longer.


  • include a wide range of foods and are a major energy source for your body. About 70 calories a serving. Most are plant based such as grains (bread, rice, pasta and cereals), certain starchy vegetables such as corn or potatoes. Highly processed foods such as cookies and cakes. Rise, pasta, bread and potatoes can all shift from healthy to unhealthy depending how they are served/cooked e.g. if edible skins removed from the potato or sour cream and butter are added.
  • Health concerns? Diabetic and watching fruits? If you are overweight and following closely your calorie and activity guidelines of the Mayo book, you will be losing weight and will find that eating these as recommended will not necessarily cause your blood sugar to be too high. You will still need to monitor your blood sugar. The weight pyramid is suitable for a vast amount of people with health concerns but with any eating program is not a “one size fits all.”
  • What about low carb diets? These diets claim that carbohydrates stimulate insulin secretion, which promotes body fat and so the conclusion made that reducing carbohydrates helps you to lose weight.
  • Carbohydrates do stimulate insulin secretion immediately after they are eaten, but is a normal process that allows the carbohydrates to be absorbed.
  • People that gain weight with carbohydrates are doing so because they take in too many calories than they burn.
  • Some low-carbohydrate diets restrict grains, fruits and vegetables and emphasize protein and dairy products, which can be high calorie and loaded with saturated fat and cholesterol.
  • Most weight loss is total calories consumed/burned, not WHERE they come from.


  • Essential to human life. Skin, bone, muscle and organ tissues are made up of protein and it’s present in your blood too. Usually originates in animal products but can in plants (TOFU). Fish, skinless poultry and lean meat, low fat dairy products are good sources of protein.
  • Legumes, namely beans, lentils and peas, are excellent source of protein because they have no cholesterol and very little fat. Great as “filler” in meat dishes. Unlike meat, helps lower the LDL (bad form of cholesterol).
  • Protein in beans is “incomplete” for essential amino acids that meat provides; there are other plentiful choices in other plant foods to get all you need.
  • Fish and shellfish not only supply you with protein but also Omega-3 fatty acids which help to lower triglycerides which are fat particles in the blood that appear to raise the risk of heart disease. Research suggests eating two servings of fish per week.
  • One serving of protein in the pyramid is about 110 calories.


  • Essential to the life and function of the body’s cells. Really.
  • Provides reserves of stored energy, has a role in maintenance of your immune system, help maintains cell structure and regulation of other bodily functions/processes.
  • Not all created equal (see pg. 29).
  • Substitute fat for liquid oil. Canola and olive oils over solid shortenings and margarine is suggested.
  • Key point: the pyramid’s fat group recommendations address only the fats that are typically ADDED to a day’s meals and not the fat within other foods such as meats.
  • ADDED fats: include salad dressings, cooking oils, butter and higher fat plant foods such as avocados. These are good for you in “MODERATION”.


  • A concentrated source of calories (about 7 per gram topped only by fat calories), but has no nutritional value. Included in the pyramid as “sweets”. Consider it a “treat”. Limit consumption to avg of 75 calories a day over the course of a week (see pg. 119).


  • Include sugar sweetened beverages such as sodas and fruit juice, candies, cakes etc. Don’t’ forget table sugar!
  • High source of calories.
  • Limit to 75 calories a day of sweets.


  • Pyramid not just about food but exercise.
  • Center of the pyramid has a circle to emphasize the importance of exercise.
  • 30-60 minutes daily and/or 150 minutes per week. See Chapter 9 (pgs. 90-97) and Chapter 18 (pgs. 172-179).

The next two weeks:

August 26, 2013/Next week: guest to share chair exercises. Let’s get moving!

September 2, 2013: Following week: TBD (volunteers please).

September 9, 2013: Let’s get caught up. Chapter 14 “Behavior change”. Be prepared to share what behaviors you have changed and how you went about changing old behaviors.