Comparative Practice 2009 WHAP/Napp

Comparative Practice 2009 WHAP/Napp

Comparative Practice 2009 WHAP/Napp

The Question:

2009 Comparative Essay from the World History AP

For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare North American racial ideologies and their effects on society with Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society.

The Basic Core Rubric:

1. Has an Acceptable Thesis. [1 Point]

2. Addresses all parts of the question, though not necessarily evenly or thoroughly.

[2 Points but Partial Credit May Be Given]

3. Substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence.

[2 Points but Partial Credit May Be Given]

4. Makes at least one relevant, direct comparison between/among societies. [1 Point]

5. Analyzes at least one reason for a similarity or difference identified in a direct comparison. [1 Point]

The Expanded Core Points:

  • Expands beyond the basic core of 1 – 7 points


1- What must an acceptable thesis for a Comparative essay contain? ______

2- What does it mean that all parts of the question must be addressed although not necessarily evenly or thoroughly? ______

3- What is historical evidence? ______

4- How many direct comparisons must the student make? ______

5- What must the student analyze? ______

6- How might a student “expand” beyond the basic core? ______

Pre-Writing Reading:

“This flow of immigrants from Spain was never large, and Spanish settlers to the Americas were always a tiny minority in a colonial society numerically dominated by Amerindians and rapidly growing populations of Africans, creoles (whites born in America to European parents), and people of mixed ancestry [mestizos]. Conquistadors and early settlers who received from the Crown grants of labor and tribute goods (encomienda) from Amerindian communities as rewards for service to Spain dominated colonial society in early Spanish America. Yet by the end of the sixteenth century, the elite of Spanish America included both European immigrants and creoles. Europeans dominated the highest levels of the church and government as well as commerce. Creoles commonly controlled colonial agriculture and mining. Although tensions between Spaniards and creoles were inevitable, most elite families included members of both groups.

Indigenous commoners suffered the heaviest burdens. Tribute payments, forced labor obligations, and the loss of traditional land rights were common. European domination dramatically changed the indigenous world. The old connections between peoples and places were weakened or, in some cases, lost. Religious life, marriage practices, diet, and material culture were altered profoundly. The survivors of these terrible shocks learned to adapt to the new colonial environment. They embraced some elements of the dominant colonial culture and its technologies.

The status of the black population of colonial Latin America declined with the opening of a direct slave trade with Africa. Africans were culturally different from the Afro-Iberian slaves and freedmen who accompanied the conquerors. Afro-Iberians commonly had deep roots in Spain or Portugal; their language was Spanish or Portuguese; and their religion was Catholicism. African slaves had different languages, religious beliefs, and cultural practices, and these differences were viewed by settlers as signs of inferiority, ultimately serving as a justification for slavery. By 1600 people with black ancestry were barred from positions in church and government as well as from many skilled crafts.

Within a century of settlement, groups of mixed descent were in the majority in many regions. There were few marriages between Amerindian women and European men, but less formal relationships were common. Few European or creole fathers recognized their mixed offspring, who were called mestizos. Nevertheless, this rapidly expanding group came to occupy a middle position in colonial society, dominating urban artisan trades and small-scale agriculture and ranching. The African slave trade also led to the appearance of new American ethnicities. Individuals of mixed European and African descent – called mulattos –came to occupy intermediate position in the tropics similar to the social position of mestizos in Mesoamerica and the Andean region.

All these mixed-descent groups were called castas in Spanish America. Castas dominated small-scale retailing and construction trades in cities. In the countryside, many small ranchers and farmers as well as wage laborers were castas. Members of mixed groups who gained high status or significant wealth generally spoke Spanish or Portuguese, observed the requirements of Catholicism, and, whenever possible, lived the life of Europeans in their residence, dress, and diet.” ~ The Earth and Its Peoples

North America / Latin America/Caribbean
Racial Ideologies: / Racial Ideologies:
Effects on Society: / Effects on Society:

The Essay’s prompt:

For the period from 1500 to 1830, compare North American racial ideologies and their effects on society with Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies and their effects on society.

The Thesis Statement:


Write one body paragraph of the essay [Now, it is time to analyze the similarity or the difference – to explain how and why this similarity or difference occurred and how and why it impacted people in the empires]:


Checklist for the Essay:

  • An acceptable thesis statements needs to be comparative, stating at least one specific similarity and at least one specific difference.
  • Good essays do not include evidence that is outside the time period or any of the stipulated regions.
  • Every paragraph must be comparative.
  • A good response provides analysis and uses this analysis as an explanation of a reason for a similarity or difference.

Rate Thesis Statement A:

“Racial ideologies have immense effects and huge impact on societies, especially those with varying races. These phenomena of racial prejudices and stereotypes changing social systems and structures can be seen in the period from 1500 to 1830 in the regions of North America and Latin America and the Caribbean. In both regions, the social effects of racial ideologies can best be seen in the treatment of native people of the regions and slaves. But, because of the strong influence of differing European nations, and their standards, contrasting societal effects can be seen in the interactions between those who implemented the colonization of the regions.”

My Grade for this Thesis Statement: ______

Rate Thesis Statement B:

“From 1500 to 1830 North American and Latin American/Caribbean racial ideologies affected their society because they had racial ladders that only allowed certain races to succeed.”

My Grade for this Thesis Statement: ______

1.______were American-born descendants of European settlers, primarily of Iberian ancestry.
(A) Castas
(B) Peninsulares
(C) Mestizos
(D) Creoles
2. Ethnic combinations of Europeans and Native Americans and Europeans and Africans were collectively called castas, or “castes,” a term originating out of a desire on the part of Iberian and Creole settlers to draw distinctions among degrees of racial mixture in hopes of counterbalancing the vast masses of Native Americans and Africans. The two most important castes were mestizos (Spanish)/ mestiços (Portuguese), born of Iberian fathers and Native American mothers, and ______, born of Iberian fathers and Black mothers.
(A) Moriscos
(B) Peninsulares
(C) Mullatos
(D) Creoles / 3. Under the encomienda system,
(A) African slaves were forcibly brought to the Americas.
(B) Tribute from Indian villages was granted to the individual conquistadors.
(C) Prisoners from Spain were sent to work in New World silver mines for periods ranging from seven years to life.
(D) The Catholic Church established schools and hospitals in Indian villages.
4. Criollos differed from peninsulares only in that
(A) They were born in the western hemisphere and not the eastern hemisphere. (B) Their mothers were part native.
(C) They had no land and were economically dependent.
(D) They had not yet been baptized in the Catholic church.
(E) They were indentured servants, while peninsulares were free.
5. In the period between 1600 and 1700, the principal product in the Atlantic trade was
(A) Pitch (C) Tobacco
(B) Sugar (D) Cotton