Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity
To demonstrate mastery of this chapter, the student should be able to:
- Define the terms “cognition” and “cognitive psychology.”
- List the three basic units of thought.
- Describe mental imagery (including the concept of mental rotation and a description of what happens in the brain during visual imaging). Explain how both stored and created images may be used to solve problems.
- Explain how the size of a mental image can be important.
- Explain how kinesthetic imagery aids thinking.
- Define the terms “concept” and “concept formation,” explain how they aid thought processes, and describe how they are learned. Define the term “conceptual rules.”
- Define the terms “conjunctive concept,” “relational concept,” and “disjunctive concept.”
- Explain the importance of prototypes.
- Explain the difference between the denotative and connotative meaning of a word or concept and describe how the connotative meaning of a word is measured using the semantic differential.
- Briefly discuss how using inaccurate concepts may lead to thinking errors. Include a discussion of social stereotypes and all-or-nothing thinking.
- Define “semantics” and explain how semantic problems may arise.
The following objective is related to the material in the “Discovering Psychology” section of the text.
- Describe the experiment conducted by Karylowski et al. in 2002 regarding faster or slower recognition of words as they are related to colors and explain how word meanings “color” our thoughts.
- Briefly describe the following three requirements of a language and their related concepts:
- Briefly describe the concept of gestural languages, especially the role of ASL.
- Describe the research involving attempts to teach primates (especially Viki, Washoe, Sarah, and Kanzi) to use language. Describe the criticisms and practical value of such attempts.
- Compare and contrast mechanical solutions with solutions through understanding. Also include a discussion of general solutions and functional solutions to problem solving.
- Define the term “heuristic” and contrast it with random search strategies.
- Describe the process of insight as a problem solving technique.
- List and describe the three abilities involved in insight.
- Explain how fixation and functional fixedness block problem solving and give an example of each.
- List and explain four common barriers to creative thinking.
- Define the term “artificial intelligence” and state upon what fact it is based.
- Explain how computer simulations and expert systems are used.
- Explain the differences between experts and novices.
- Define “intelligence.”
- Explain what an operational definition of intelligence is.
- Describe Binet’s role in intelligence testing.
- Generally describe the construction of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
- Define “intelligence quotient,” and use an example to show how it was computed. Define the terms “chronological age” and “mental age.” Explain the purpose of deviation IQ scores.
- Distinguish the Wechsler tests from the Stanford-Binet tests.
- Define the term “culture-fair test,” and explain how IQ tests may be unfair to certain groups.
- Distinguish between group and individual intelligence tests.
- Describe the pattern of distribution of IQ scores observed in the general population.
- Discuss the relationship between IQ and achievement.Describe any differences between males and females with regard to IQ.
- Briefly describe Terman’s study of gifted children. State how successful subjects differed from the less successful ones.
- List seven early signs of giftedness.
- Describe Gardner’s broader view of intelligence and list the eight different kinds of intelligence he discusses.
- State the dividing line between normal intelligence and retardation (or developmental disability) and list the degrees of retardation.
- Differentiate between organic and familial retardation.
- Explain how the twin (identical and fraternal) studies can be used to support either side of the heredity/environment controversy.
- Describe the evidence that strongly supports the environmental view of intelligence.
- Describe the studies that indicate how much the environment can alter intelligence.
- Discuss how the heredity/environment debate is currently viewed.
- Describe the following four kinds of thought:
45.Describe the following characteristics of creative thinking:
46.Explain the relationship of creativity to divergent and convergent thinking. Describe how the ability to think divergently can be measured.
- List and describe the five stages of creative thinking and relate them to a problem that you have solved.
- List five conclusions about creative people.
- Define “intuition.”
- Explain the following errors made when using intuition:
bunderlying odds (base rate)
- Briefly describe the relationship between intelligence and wisdom.
- Describe eight practical steps for encouraging creativity.
- Describe the process of brainstorming, and explain how it can be used to solve problems.
- Briefly list and describe the nine items on the “creativity checklist.”
- List eight ways that are suggested to become more creative.