Chapter 13—Changes on the Western Frontier
Corresponds with pages 27, 28, 29, & 30 in SSS
Define Great Plains—
Buffalo and horses were extremely important to Native Americas. Explain the things that buffalo were used for—
Explain what horses were used for—
The culture of the white settlers differed in many ways form that of Native Americans, who believed that land could not be owned, the settlers believed that owning land, making a mining claim, or starting a business would give them a stake in the country. What justification was used for taking the land from Native Americans?
Describe the massacre at Sand Creek—
What treaty did the Sioux agree to live on a reservation along the Missouri River?
The lure of silver and gold
Black Hills of Dakota—
George A. Custer reported in 1874 that the Black Hills had gold “from the grass roots down,” and a gold rush was on.
In 1876, Native Americans led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull raised their spears and rifles and defeated Custer at ______.
In 1881, ______wrote a book called A Century of Dishonor which exposed the government’s broken promises in her 1881 book.
**Define Chief Joseph and Nez Perce—
** Define buffalo soldiers—
What was assimilation?
What was the name of the 1887 act that attempted to “Americanize” the Native Americans (this act broke up the reservations and gave some of the reservation land to individual Native Americans—160 acres to each head of household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult)?
Was this act successful? Why?
What was the most significant blow to tribal life? Explain why—
Note what happened to the numbers of this animal from 1800 to 1870—
What did the Ghost Dance movement suggest?
Who did military leaders order the arrest of? What eventually happened to this man?
December 28, 1890 brings the wars with Native Americans to a bitter end. Where was this? What happened here?
Because of the herds of buffalo disappearing, Native Americans horses and cattle flourished. Because of this, Americans had to learn how to manage large herds on the open range.
Cattle Drives--After the Civil War, the demand for ______skyrocketed partly due to the rapidly growing cities. With this demand, there were several Western towns with plans to create a shipping yard were the trails and rail lines came together. What was the Chisholm Trail?
Explain what the life of a cowboy was like—
About 25% of them were African American, and at least ______% were Mexican.
How many hours a day did a cowboy work?
How young were some of the cowboys?
Define long drive—
What did the cowboy do during the long drive?
******Extra Credit********List some of the people who were legends of the West—
As fast as the ranching became big business, it came to an end because of overgrazing of the land, extended bad weather, and the invention of ______by Joseph Glidden. Is was cheap and easy to use and helped to turn the open plains into a series of fenced-in ranches. The era of wide-open West was over.
From 1850 to 1871, the federal government made huge land grants to the railroads—170 million acres, worth half a billion dollars—for laying track in the West.
What two companies began a race to lay the track?
What immigrants were known for working on the transcontinental railroad?
What act was passed which offered 160 acres to anyone that was head of the household and if there would be improvements made to the land (there were 600, 000 people who took advantage of the government’s offer)?
What was the name of African Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas?
In 1889, what present-day state had a major land giveaway in that attracted thousands of people (in less than a day, land-hungry settlers claimed 2 million acres)?
Read Frederick Jackson Turner’s quote, “American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth, this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities, its continuous touch with the simplicity of primitive society, furnish the forces dominating American character.” What did he think about how the frontier had shaped American character?
Explain some of the responsibilities associated with women—
Explain the significance how new inventions improved the work of farmers and led to the eastern plains becoming “the breadbasket of the nation.”
The federal government supported farmers by financing agricultural education through the ______.
What type of farms grew because elaborate machinery was expensive and farmers often had to borrow money to buy it?
List some of the problems farmers experienced during this time in the following chart.
What were greenbacks? Describe how retiring greenbacks created problems.
What was the Bland-Allison an attempt to do? Did it work?
Because there are so many problems, farmers had to organize. In 1867, Oliver Kelly will start the Patrons of Husbandry. What other name was this organization known by? What was their original purpose and what did it end up changing to?
This also led to the rise of other organizations that included others who sympathized with farmers. What were some of the things they attempted to do?
List some of the alliances formed.
Leaders of the alliances realized that there needed to be far-reaching changes to build a base of political power. What political party was born because of this?
What types of demands did they make?
Who did the platform of the populist party appeal to in 1892?
What political party eventually adopted these beliefs?
During the ______the government’s gold supply had worn thin and stock prices fell rapidly. This Panic of 1893 deepened into a depression.
Election of 1896--With so many problems, there was a deep divide between the two political parties. The business owners and bankers of the industrialized Northeast were ______and the farmers and laborers of the agrarian South and West were ______. The central issue of this election was which ______would be the basis of the currency. Some wanted ______----, which gave citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks. Others favored the ______-backing dollars solely with gold.GOLD BUGS / SILVERITES
WHO THEY WERE / Bankers, businessmen / Farmers, laborers
WHAT THEY WANTED / Gold standard, less money in circulation / Bimetallism, more money in circulation
WHY / Loans would be repaid in stable money. / Products would be sold at higher prices.
EFFECTS / DEFLATION
value of money increases
fewer people have money / INFLATION
Value of money decreases
More people have money
Who ran for president for the Republicans in 1896 (& favored the gold standard)?
Who was endorsed for president for the Democrats ( & favored gold & SILVER standard)?
Who won the 1896 election?
What happened to the Populists after this election?
What movement did it lead to in the 20th century?