《Bullinger’s Companion Bible Notes – 2 Corinthians》(E.W. Bullinger)
Ethelbert William Bullinger AKC (December 15, 1837 - June 6, 1913) was an Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and ultradispensationalist theologian.
He was born in Canterbury, Kent, England, the youngest of five children of William and Mary (Bent) Bullinger. His family traced their ancestry back to Heinrich Bullinger, the Swiss Reformer.
His formal theological training was at King's College London from 1860-1861, earning an Associate's degree. After graduation, on October 15, 1861, he married Emma Dobson, thirteen years his senior. He later received a Doctor of Divinity degree in 1881 from Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury who cited Bullinger's "eminent service in the Church in the department of Biblical criticism."
Bullinger's career in the Church of England spanned 1861 until 1888. He began as associate curate in the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey in 1861, and was ordained as a priest in the Church of England in 1862. He served as parish curate in Tittleshall from 1863-1866; Notting Hill from 1866-1869; Leytonstone, 1869-1870; then Walthamstow until he became vicar of the newly established parish of St. Stephen's in 1874. He resigned his vicarage in 1888.
In the spring of 1867, Bullinger became clerical secretary of the Trinitarian Bible Society, a position he would hold till his death in 1913. Bullinger was editor of a monthly journal Things to Come subtitled A Journal of Biblical Literature, with Special Reference to Prophetic Truth. The Official Organ of Prophetic Conferences for over 20 years (1894-1915) and contributed many articles.
THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE EPISTLE AS A WHOLE.
2 Corinthians 1:1-2. INTRODUCTION.
2 Corinthians 1:3-11. THANKSGIVING.
2 Corinthians 1:12. CHARACTER OF PAUL""S MINISTRY.
2 Corinthians 1:13-14. THE PRESENT EPISTLE.
2 Corinthians 1:15-16. PROPOSED VISIT.
2 Corinthians 1:17-24; 2 Corinthians 2:1-2. VINDICATION OF HIS ACTION.
2 Corinthians 2:3-11. FORMER EPISTLE. OBJECT.
2 Corinthians 2:12-13. NO REST IN SPIRIT.
2 Corinthians 2:13. MACEDONIA. JOURNEY.
2 Corinthians 2:14-17. THANKSGIVING.
2 Corinthians 3:1 - 2 Corinthians 7:4. CHARACTER OF PAUL""S MINISTRY.
2 Corinthians 7:5-7. NO REST IN FLESH.
2 Corinthians 7:8-16. FORMER EPISTLE. EFFECT.
2 Corinthians 8:19; 2 Corinthians 8:15. MACEDONIA. ASSEMBLIES.
2 Corinthians 10:1 - 2 Corinthians 12:13. VINDICATION OF HIS ACTION.
2 Corinthians 12:14 - 2 Corinthians 13:1. PURPOSED VISIT.
2 Corinthians 13:2-10. THE PRESENT EPISTLE.
2 Corinthians 13:11-14. CONCLUSION.
THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS. INTRODUCTORY NOTES.
1. From various passages we learn that the apostle Paul wrote this Epistle under much pressure of spirit. The personal part of his first letter to the Corinthians had its effect upon the obedient members of the church (see ch. 2 and 7), and he wrote a second time to comfort such, as well as to warn a disobedient element (2 Corinthians 13:2, 2 Corinthians 13:10). It is plain that certain altogether denied his authority, and in ch. 10:13 he once more powerfully vindicates his apostleship, especially in connection with false teachers, against whom he earnestly warned Corinthians. The specific claim of authority as proceeding from his Lord and Master alone occupies a large part of this Epistle. Hence, also, the admonition that if he came he enforce that authority. There is much to indicate Paul""s anxiety for all the churches, while in the doctrinal portions occur some unsurpassed presentations of the Divine love in Christ.
2. Not only was this church burdened with internal trouble (ch. 1), but they had trials also from without (2 Corinthians 11:13, 2 Corinthians 11:15), just as the Lord Himself had foretold in Matthew 24:9Matthew 24:12. In consolation, Paul held out before them (2 Corinthians 4:14) the same hope of resurrection as he proclaimed in his first letter.
3. Timothy had been sent to Corinth (1 Corinthians 4:17) and had no doubt returned bearing news of the unhappy condition of the church. Titus delivered the first letter and, there being some delay in his return, Paul passed from Troas to Macedonia, where, later Titus brought from Corinth (2 Corinthians 7:7, 2 Corinthians 7:16) such reports as only partially assured the apostle, and led him to send the Second Epistle by the same fellow worker.
4. Various explanations have been proposed with regard to the conditions under which the Epistle was written. Some think that, prior to its transmission, the apostle had sent by the hand of Timothy a severe letter which has been lost. Another suggestion is that Paul, hearing of the confusion in the church, made a hasty visit to Corinth from Ephesus, and finding that he availed nothing but rather was set at naught, withdrew to another part of Achaia or to Macedonia, where he penned the Second Epistle. Still other views on a similar lines are put forward, but all that can be said is that they are suppositions of which there is no hint in the Epistle. Connecting 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 13:2, the apostle had not been back on account of the disorders in the church, whatever may be meant by "the third time"in 13:1. in 2 Corinthians 1:15-16 he is minded to come to them as a second benefit, and passing to Macedonia, to return to them, which would have been a third time.
5. Written from Macedonia not long after Paul""s leaving Asia (2 Corinthians 1:8), it would not be many months after the dispatch of the First Epistle. This was probably in A. D. 57 (winter) or spring of 58. See Appdx-180.
01 Chapter 1
apostle. App-189. First occurance of this form of address Compare Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:1. Ephesians 1:1. Colossians 1:1, 1 Timothy 1:1. 2 Timothy 1:1,
Jesus Christ. App-98.
by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 1:1.
will. Greek. thelema, App-102. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:1.
God. App-98. Compare Acts 9:15.
Timothy. Timothy is associated with Paul in the address of the epistles to Philippians, Colossians; and with Paul and Silas in the two epistles to the Thessalonians.
our = the.
unto = to.
at = in. App-104.
with. Greek. sun. App-104.
saints. Greek. hagios. See Acts 9:13.
from. Greek. apo. App-104.
Blessed. Greek. eulogetos. See Romans 1:2.
God = the God.
even = and, as in Ephesians 1:3. 1 Peter 1:3.
mercies. Greek. oiktirmos. See Romans 12:1.
the God of all comfort. Compare Acts 7:2.
comfort. Greek. paraklesis. See Acts 4:36. This word appears eleven times in this Epistle, six times in this chapter. In to 2 Corinthians 5:6, 2 Corinthians 5:7 translated "consolation". Note the Figure of speech Epanodos, App-8.
comforteth. Greek. parokaleo. App-134. Occurs eighteen times in this epistle.
in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
tribulation. Greek thilpsis. See Acts 7:10.
that we may be = unto (Greek. eis. App-104.) our being.
any = every.
trouble. Same as "tribulation".
of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.
sufferings. Greek. pathetna. See Romans 8:18.
Christ = the Christ. App-98.
in = towards. Greek. eis, as in 2 Corinthians 1:4.
consolation = comfort, as 2 Corinthians 1:3.
whether = if. Greek. eite, App-118.
afflicted. Greek. thliho. Occurs here, 2 Corinthians 4:8; 2 Corinthians 7:5, Matthew 7:14. Mark 3:9. 1 Thessalonians 3:4. 2 Thessalonians 1:6, 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Timothy 5:10. Hebrews 11:37. Compare "tribulation", above.
for. Greek huper. App-104.
is effectual = worketh, See Romans 7:5.
enduring. Greek. hupomone. Generally trans). "patience".
of = on
behalf of. Greek haper, as in 2 Corinthians 1:6.
stedfast. Greek. bebaios. See Hebrews 2:2. In some MSS. this clause stands at the beginning of 2 Corinthians 1:6, in others in the middle, alter "suffer".
knowing. Greek. oida. App-182.
partakers. Greek. koinonos. Seer Colossians 10:18.
also, etc. of the consolation also.
would not = do not wish (Greek. thelo. App-102.) you to be.
not. Greek ou. App-105.
ignorant. Greek agnoeo. See Romans 1:13. The sixth occurance of this expression.
of. The texts read "concerning", Greek. peri. App-104.
to us, The texts omit,
pressed = weighed down. Greek. bareo, Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 6:4. Matthew 26:43 (heavy). Mark 14:40. Luke 9:32, 1 Timothy 5:16 (charged),
out of measure. Literally according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) excellence (Greek. hyperbole) or excess. This phrase is used five times. See 2 Corinthians 4:17. Romans 7:13. 1 Corinthians 12:31. Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:13.
above. Greek. huper. App-104.
strength = power. Greek. dunamis. App-172.
insomuch = so.
despaired. Greek. exaporeomai. Only here and 2 Corinthians 4:8. The reference may be to the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19:23-34), where his life would have been in danger, but for the counsel of his friends (2 Corinthians 1:31; but the following verses rather indicate some dangerous sickness. Both may have been in the apostle"s mind,
life. Greek. zao. Compare App-170.
sentence = answer. Greek. apokrima. Only here. Compare App-122. The only issue he could see from his troubles wag "death".
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
not. Greek. me. App-105.
trust. Greek. peitho. App-160. naiseth. Greek. egeiro. App-175.
the dead. App-139.
delivered. Greek. ruomai, Note the different tenses, giving the Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6.
from = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
so great. Greek. telikoutos. Only here, Hebrews 2:3. James 3:4. Revelation 16:18.
doth. The texts read "will",
trust = hope.
yet = still also.
helping together = co-operating. Greek. sunupourgeo. Only here.
by. No Preposition. Dative case.
prayer. Greek. deesis, App-134.
gift. Greek. charisma. App-184.
upon. Greek. eis. App-104.
by the means of = from. Greek. ek. App-104. Thanks may be given. Literally, it may be thanked. Greek. eucharisteo. See Acts 27:35.
on our behalf = on account of (Greek. huper. Same as "for", 2 Corinthians 1:6) us.
rejoicing = boasting Greek. kauchesis, the act of boasting, See Romans 3:22.
testimony. Greek. marturion. First occurance, Matthew 8:4, conscience. See Acts 23:1.
simplicity = guilelessness. Greek. haplotos, Elsewhere 2 Corinthians 8:2; 2 Corinthians 9:11, 2 Corinthians 9:13, 2 Corinthians 11:3; Romans 12:8. Ephesians 6:5. Colossians 3:22. The texts read hagiotes, holiness; not the Syriac.
godly sincerity = sincerity of God.
sincerity, Greek. eilikrineia. See 1 Corinthians 5:8.
with = in. Greek. en. App-104,
fleshly. Greek. sarkikos. See Romans 7:14 and 1 Peter 2:11.
by = in, as above.
have had our eonvereation = behaved, or lived. Greek anastrepho, Compare Ephesians 2:3. 1 Timothy 3:15, Hebrews 10:33; Hebrews 13:18. 1 Peter 1:17. 2 Peter 2:18.
world. Greek kosmos. App-129.1.
more abundantly. Greek. perissoterds. Out of thirteen occurances, seven are in this Epistle. See 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 7:13, 2 Corinthians 7:15; 2 Corinthians 11:23, 2 Corinthians 11:24; 2 Corinthians 12:15,
to you-ward = towards (Greek. pros. App-104.) you.
none = not (Greek. ou).
other. Greek. allos App-124.
acknowledge. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.
even. The texts omit.
also ye = ye also.
in part. Greek. apo merous. A part of you, the faithful ones.
rejoicing = ground of boasting. Greek. kauchema. See Romans 4:2.
the day, &c. See 1 Corinthians 5:5.
in. No Prep Out, case. confidence. Greek. pepoithesis. App-160.
was minded = wished. Greek. boulomai, App-102.
unto. Greek. pros. App-104.
before, i.e. before visiting Macedonia.
benefit. Greek charis, App-181.
into. Greek eis. App-104.
out of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.
brought on my way. Greek. piopempo. See Acts 15:3
toward. Greek. eis, as above. This was the apostle"s original intention, but was altered, because of his not finding Titus 2:12-13). See p. 1727.
did I, &c. The question is introduced by meti, expecting a negative answer,
lightness = fickleness. Gn elaphria, Only here.
purpose = plan. Greek. bouleuoThe "Received Text" reads bouleuomai at the beginning of the verse also.
according to. Greek. kata. App-104.
with. Greek. para. App-104.
yea yea = the yea yea.
nay nay = the nay nay. Greek. on. App-105. That is, one thing to-day and another to-morrow.
true = faithful. Greek. pistos App-150.
word. Greek. logos. App-121. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:18.
toward = unto. Greek. pros, as in verses: 2 Corinthians 1:15, 2 Corinthians 1:16, 2 Corinthians 1:20.
Son. Greek. huios. App-108.
preached. Greek. kereseo, App-121.
among. Greek. en. App-104.
Silvanus = Silas. Compare 1 Thessalonians 1:1, 2 Thessalonians 1:1. 1 Peter 5:12. See Acts 18:5.
all, &c. = as many as are the promises of God, in Him they are. and in Him. The texts read" Wherefore also through (App-104, 2 Corinthians 1:1) Him they are. "Amen, This Hebrew word is translated "verily" in the Gospels, except in Matthew 6:13 at the end of the Lord"s Prayer, and at the close of each Gospel, It does not nec. in the Acts. In the Epistles it comes at the close of benedictions and doxologies. In the Revelation occasionally at the beginning. There are three exceptions, here, 1 Corinthians 14:16, and Revelation 3:14. In the last passage it is a title of the Lord. It means "truth", and He is the Truth (John 14:6). Compare Isaiah 65:16, where "the God of truth" is "the God of Amen",
stablisheth = confirms. Greek. bebaioo. See Romans 15:8.
anointed. Greek. chrio, the verb from which Christos is formed. Elsewhere, always of the Lord. Luke 4:18. Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38. Hebrews 1:9.
also sealed us = sealed us also.
sealed. Greek. sphragizo. Compare John 3:33.
given = gave,
earnest. Greek. arrabon. Only here, 2 Corinthians 5:5. Ephesians 1:14. A foretaste or pledge of some future benefit.
Spirit. App-101. The operation of the Spirit is the pledge of the fulfilment of the promises.
call God for a record = invoke God as a witness.
call. Greek. epikaleomai. See Acts 2:21, Compare Acts 25:11, Acts 25:12, Acts 25:21, Acts 25:25; &c.
record. Greek. martur. Compare Romans 1:9.
upon, Greek. epi. App-104.
soul. Greek. psuche. App-110.
spare. Greek.pheidomai. See Acts 20:29.
as yet. Greek. ouketi.
unto. Greek. eis. App-104.
for that = because.
have dominion = lord it. Greek. kurieuo. See Romans 6:9.
faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.
helpers. Greek sunergoe. See Romans 3:9.
02 Chapter 2
determined = judged, or decided. Greek. krino. App-122.
that I would not cot to.
not. Greek. me. App-105.
to = unto. Greek. pros. App-104.
in. Greek. en. App-104.
heaviness = sorrow or grief. Greek. lupe, translated "sorrow" in verses: 2 Corinthians 2:3, 2 Corinthians 2:7.
if. Greek. ei. App-118.
make . . . sorry = grieve. Greek. lupeo, trenel. "grieve", or "cause grief" in verses: 2 Corinthians 2:2, 2 Corinthians 2:4, a. Out of twenty-six occurrences, twelve are in this Epistle.
maketh. . . glad. Greek. euphraind. See Acts 2:26 (rejoice).
but. = except. Greek. ei me.
by. Greek. ek. App-104.
unto you. The texts omit.
lest = in order that (Greek. hina) not (Greek. me),
sorrow. See 2 Corinthians 2:1.
from. Greek. apo. App-104.
having confidence = trusting. Greek. peitho. App-150.
in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.
out of. Greek. ek. App-104.
affliction. Greek. thlipeis, as in 2 Corinthians 1:4.
anguish = straitening, or distress. Greek. sunoche. Only here and Luke 21:25. Compare the verb sunecho, 2 Corinthians 5:14. Luke 12:50, Acts 18:5. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:23.
unto = to.
with = by, or through. Greek.
dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:1.
not. Greek. ou. App-105.
that = in order that. Greek. hina.
know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.
love. Greek. agape. App-135.
more abundantly. See 2 Corinthians 1:12.
unto. Greek. eie. App-104.
any. Greek. tie. App-123.
in part, Greek. apo merous. The grief has come from a part of you who have been led away.
overcharge = lay a burden, or press heavily, upon. Greek. epibareo. Only here, 1 Thessalonians 2:9. 2 Thessalonians 3:8.
man = one, as 2 Corinthians 2:7.
Punishment = censure. Greek. epitimia. Only here. Compare the verb epitimao. First occurance: Matthew 8:26. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-6.
of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.
many = the more, i.e. the majority.
contrariwise = (on) the contrary. Greek. taunantion, for to enantion. Here, Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:7. 1 Peter 3:9,
forgive. Greek. charizomai. App-184.
comfort. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.
lest = lest perhaps. Greek. mepos.
swallowed up Greek. katapind. See 1 Corinthians 15:54.
overmuch = more abundant.
beseech. Greek. parakaied, as above.
confirm = ratify with authority. Greek. kuroo. Only here and Galatians 1:3, Galatians 1:15. Akin to kuries, lord.
toward. Greek. eia. App-104.
to this end for (Greek. eie) this.
also did I write = did I write also.
proof. Greek. dokime. See Romans 5:4 (experience).
whether = if. App-118.
obedient. Greek hupikoos. See Acts 7:39.
in. Greek. eis, no above.
I forgive also = also forgive.
for your sake. Literally on account of (Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:2) you.
person = face, i.e. eight, or presence.
Satan, &c. Literally should be overreached (Greek. pleonekteo. Here, 2 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 12:17, 2 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Thessalonians 4:6)
by (Greek. hupo, as in 2 Corinthians 2:6) Satan.
ignorant. Gr. agnoeo. Compare 2 Corinthians 1:8. Figure of speech Tapeinosis. App-8.
devices = thoughts.
Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 3:14; 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 10:5; 2 Corinthians 11:3. Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:7. See 2 Corinthians 11:3. Ephesians 6:11. Revelation 2:24,
Furthermore = Now. to. Greek eis. App-104.
Troas. See Acts 16:8.
to preach Christ"s gospel = for (Cr. eis) the gospel (App-140) of the Messiah.
door. See 1 Corinthians 16:9,
of. Greek en. App-104.
no = not (Greek. ou).
rest. Greek. anesis. See Acts 24:23.
taking . . . leave. Greek. apotassomai. See Acts 18:18.
went from thence = went forth. into. Greek eis. App-104.
thanks. Greek. charis. App-184.
causeth us to triumph = leadeth us in triumph (Greek. thriamheud), or triumphs over us as in Colossians 2:15. Only in these two places. Paul was a captive won by grace. In a Roman triumph there were captives destined to be spared and captives destined to death. See 2 Corinthians 2:16.
maketh manifest. Greek. phaneroo. App-106.
savour. Greek osme. Elsewhere, 2 Corinthians 2:16. John 12:3 (odour). Ephesians 5:2. Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:18 (odour).
knowledge. Greek. gnosis. App-192.
by = by means of. Greek. dia. App-104. 2 Corinthians 2:1. Paul gave evidence of the wisdom which dwelt in Him (Colossians 2:3) in his own conversion (1 Timothy 1:16), as well as in his preaching.
sweet savour. Greek. euodia, Elsewhere, Ephesians 5:2. Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:18.
saved = being saved. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:1, 1 Corinthians 1:18.
perish = are perishing. Greek. opollumi. See 1 Corinthians 1:18.
life. Greek. zoe. App-170.
for. Greek. pros. App-104.
many. As in 2 Corinthians 2:6.
corrupt = adulterate. Greek kapeleuo. Only here. The word kapelos, which occurs once in the Septuagint, meant as huckster, tavern-keeper, and then the verb came to mean "adulterate". See Isaiah 1:22, where the Septuagint meads, "thy wine-sellers mix the wine with water".