Biology I: Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 2009

Biology I: Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 2009

Biology I: Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009

Unit 1: Foundations of Biology

Chapter 1: Science of Life, pp 5-24

1 adaptation; 2 base unit; 3 biological molecule; 4 biology; 5 cell; 6 cell division; 7 compound light microscope; 8 control group; 9 dependent variable; 10 development; 11 domain; 12 ecology;

13 ecosystem; 14 evolution; 15 experiment; 16 experimental group; 17 eyepiece; 18 gene;

19 homeostasis; 20 hypothesis; 21independent variable; 22 kingdom; 23 light source;

24 magnification; 25 metabolism; 26 metric system; 27 multicellular; etc…

1 traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive & reproduce

2 fundamental units of the SI system of measurements

3 chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that allow cells to function

4 study of life

5 smallest unit that can perform all life’s processes

6 formation of 2 new cells from an existing cell

7 microscope with 2 lenses magnifying an image through which light is being shone

8the normal standard against with one can compare results from experimental groups

9 the factor being measured that is affected/ caused by the 1 change from controls

10 process by which an organism becomes a mature adult

11 three major subdivisions of all organisms, i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, & Eukarya

12 branch of biology studying organisms’ interactions with each other & their environment

13 communities of living species and their physical environment

14 process in which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations

15 a test for a hypothesis and its predictions

16 group identical to control group except for one variable/ factor

17 part of microscope through which you look; it magnifies image usually by 10 x

18 short segment of DNA containing instructions for a single trait of an organism

19 maintenance of stable internal environment even though external conditions are constantly changing

20 proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions

21 the one factor different from controls that is being tested for its affect

22 six major categories of all organisms, i.e., Animalia, Archaea, Bacteria, Fungi, Plantae, Protista

23 part of microscope providing light with which to view the specimen

24 the increase of an objects apparent size

25 sum of all chemical reactions that take in & transform energy & materials from the environment

26 single standard system of measurements based on powers of 10

27 organisms made up of multiple cells

28 natural selection; 29 nosepiece; 30 objective lens; 31 observation; 32 ocular lens; 33 organ; 34 organelle; 35 organization; 36 peer review; 37 prediction; 38 reproduction; 39 resolution; 40 scanning electron microscope (SEM); 41 scientific method; 42 stage; 43 theory; 44 tissue;

45 transmission electron microscope (TEM); 46 unicellular

28 process by which organisms with certain favorable traits better survive and reproduce

29 part of microscope that holds the set of objective lenses

30part of microscope located directly over the specimen which magnifies specimen

31 act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes one to pose a question

32 part of microscope equivalent to the eyepiece

33 structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system

34 tiny structures within the cell that carry out functions necessary for cell viability

35 high degree of order within an organism’s internal & external parts

36 process where scientists who are experts in the field anonymously read & critique research papers

37 statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true

38 production of new organisms from and similar to existing organisms

39 the power to show details clearly in an image, i.e., to distinguish between 2 adjacent parts

40 type of microscope passing a beam of electrons over a specimen’s surface to give 3-D images

41 organized approach to learning how the natural world works

42 part of microscope that supports the slide holding eh specimen

43 set of related hypotheses explaining a lot of data & are confirmed many times by multiple scientists

44 groups of cells with similar abilities that allow the organ to function

45 type of microscope passing a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen

46 organisms made up of only 1 cell

Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life, pp 31-44

1adhesion; 2 acid; 3 activation energy; 4 atom; 5 atomic number; 6 aqueous solution; 7base; 8 buffer;

1 attractive force between particles of different substances

2 a solution in which the number of hydronium ions exceed the number of hydroxide ions

3 the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction

4 simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element

5 the number of protons in an atom

6 solutions in which water is the solvent

7a solution in which the number of hydroxide ions exceed the number of hydronium ions

8 chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution

Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009 Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life, pp 31-44

9 capillarity; 10 catalyst; 11 chemical bond; 12 chemical reaction; 13 cohesion; 14 compound;

15 concentration; 16 covalent bond; 17 electron; 18 element; 19 energy; 20 enzyme;21 hydrogen bond; 22 hydroxide ion; 23 hydronium ion; 24 ion; 25 ionic bond; 26 isotope; 27 mass; 28 mass number;

29 matter; 30 metabolism; 31 molecule; 32 nucleus; 33 neutron; 34 orbital; 35 oxidation reaction; etc...

9 attraction between molecules resulting in the rise of surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid

10chemical substances that reduce the amount of activation energy needed

11attractive forces that hold atoms together

12 process in which 1 or more substances change to produce 1 or more different substances

13attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together

14combinations of atoms of 2 or more elements combined in fixed proportions

15 amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution

16 attractive force formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

17 small, negatively charged subatomic particles of an atom

18 substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter

19the ability to do work

20protein or RNA molecule that acts as a catalyst in metabolic processes

21force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or

molecule with partial or full negative charge

22 the OH- ion

23 the H3O+ ion

24atoms or molecules with an electrical charge

25attraction between oppositely charged ions

26 atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons (and hence a different mass)

27 quantity of matter that an object has

28 the total number of protons and neutrons of an atom

29 anything that has mass and takes up space

30 all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism

31 simplest part of a substance retaining all the properties of that substance that can exist in a free state

32 central region of an atom in which neutrons and protons are found

33 subatomic particle, equal in size to the proton but with no charge, found in the atom’s nucleus

34 three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicated the probably location of an electron

35 process in which a reactant loses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge

Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009: Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

36 pH scale; 37 polar; 38 product; 39 proton; 40 reactant; 41 redox reaction; 42 reduction reaction;

43 saturated solution; 44 solute; 45 solution; 46 solvent

36 a scale for comparing the relative amounts of hydroxide and hydronium ions in a solution

37 an uneven distribution of charge

38 the substances on the right side of the chemical equation that are formed in a chemical reaction

39 positively charged subatomic particle found in an atom’s nucleus

40 the substances on the left side of the chemical equation that begin a chemical reaction

41 oxidation-reduction reactions

42 process in which a reactant gains one or more electrons, thus becoming more negative in charge

43 a solution in which no more solute can be dissolved

44 substance dissolved in the solvent

45 mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance

46 substance in which the solute is dissolved

Chapter 3: Biochemistry, pp 51-60

1 active site; 2 adenosine triphosphate (ATP); 3 amino acid; 4 carbohydrate; 5 condensation reaction;

6 deoxyribonucleic acid; 7 disaccharide; 8 enzyme; 9 fatty acid; 10 functional group; 11 hydrolysis;

12 lipid; 13 macromolecule; 14 monomer; etc…

1 folds in the enzyme with specific shapes that hold the substrate

2 biological compound capable of storing much energy in its phosphate bonds

3 monomer of peptides & proteins with basic formula of NH2-CHR-COOH where R = different groups

4 organic compounds with the general formula of CH2O

5 chemical reaction in which H2O is released that is responsible for linking monomers together

6 nucleic acid containing information that determines organism characteristics & directs cell activities

7 a double sugar formed from the condensation reaction of 2 monosaccharides

8 RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts

9 unbranched carbon chains making up most lipids; has 12-28 C chain with a carboxyl group at 1 end

10 clusters of atoms influencing characteristics & chemical reactions of the molecules the compose

11 chemical reaction in which H2O is used to break bonds in a polymer

12 large, nonpolar organic molecules (triglycerides, phospholipds, steroids, waxes, pigments, fats)

13 large polymers

14 small simple molecules that can form together like modules to make larger molecules

Biology I: Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009: Chapter 3: Biochemistry, pp 51-60

15 monosaccharide; 16 nucleic acid; 17 nucleotide; 18 organic compound; 19 peptide bond;

20 phospholipid; 21 polymer; 22 polypeptide; 23 polysaccharide; 24 protein; 25 ribonucleic acid;

26 steroid; 27 substrate; 28 triglyceride; 29 wax

15 a monomer of a carbohydrate with the general formula (CH2O)n, where n = 3 to 8

16 very large, complex organic molecules that store & transfer important information in the cell

17 monomer of nucleic acids; contains nitrogenous base, a 5-C sugar, & a phosphate group

18 compounds made primarily from carbon

19 covalent bond formed between 2 amino acids in a condensation reaction

20 type of lipid composed of 2 fatty acids with a phosphate group attached to glycerol’s 3rd carbon

21 molecule consisting of repeated, linked units

22very long chains of amino acids

23 complex molecule composed of 3 monosaccharides

24 organic compounds composed of polypeptides

25 nucleic acid that stores & transfers information from DNA & is essential for protein manufacturing

26 lipid composed of 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them

27 the reactant being catalyzed

28 type of lipid composed of 3 fatty acids joined to glycerol

29 structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain

Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009: Chapter 4: Cell Structure & Function, pp 69-90

1 cell; 2 cell theory; 3 cell wall; 4 central vacuole; 5 centriole; 6 chlorophyll; 7 chloroplast;

8 chromosome; 9 cilia;

1 smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life

2 basic theory about the cellular nature of life

3 rigid layer outside plant’s plasma membrane, containing cellulose, proteins, & other carbohydrates

4 large, fluid-filled organelle storing water, enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials

5 two short microtubular cylinders near nuclear envelope of animal cells & important in cell division

6 green pigment that absorbs lights, capturing light energy for the cells of plants and algae

7 organelle that contains chlorophyll

8 structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein formed when chromatin condenses

9 short hairlike structures, often numerous, that extend from cell surface & often aid in movement

Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, © 2009: Chapter 4: Cell Structure & Function, pp 69-90

10 cytoplasm; 11 cytoskeleton; 12 cytosol; 13 endoplasmic reticulum; 14 eukaryote; 15 flagellum;

16 Golgi apparatus; 17 lysosome; 18 microfilament; 19 microtubule; 20 mitochondrion; 21 nuclear

envelope; 22 nucleolus; 23 nucleus; 24 organ; 25 organ system; 26 organelle; 27 phospholipid bilayer;

28 plasma membrane; 29 plastid; 30 prokaryote; 31 ribosome; 32 thylakoid; 33 tissue

10 region within plasma membrane that includes the fluid, cytoskeleton, & non-nuclear organelles

11 network of thin tubes & filaments crisscrossing the cytosol to make a system of support & transport

12 part of cytoplasm including fluid, molecules,& small particles, but no membrane-bound organelles

13 system of membranous tubes & sacs that functions as an intracellular highway

14 organisms that have membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

15 long hairlike structure that extends from the surface of cell and aids in cellular movement

16 system of flattened, membranous sacs for processing and packaging of proteins and lipids

17 vesicles budding from the Golgi apparatus and containing digestive enzymes

18 long threads of beadlike protein actin, linked end-to-end & wrapped around each other, which

contribute to cell movement

19 hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin that hold organelles in place, maintain cell shape, & act as


20 tiny; organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP

21 double membrane surrounding the nucleus

22 denser area of the nucleus where DNA is concentrated when making ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

23 membrane-bound organelle containing cell’s DNA

24 a group of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism

25 a group of organs that accomplish related tasks

26 well-defined, subcellular structures that perform specific functions for the cell

27 double layer membrane with polar phosphate heads sandwiching nonpolar lipid tails in the middle

28 cell’s outer boundary covering a cell’s surface and acting as a barrier to the environment

29 organelles in plants containing their own DNA & surrounded by a double membrane

30 organisms that la\ck a membrane-bound nucleus & membrane-bound organelles

31 nonmembrane-bound organelle composed of RNA & protein that directs protein synthesis

32 system of flattened, membranous sacs in chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll

33a group of similar cells and their products that carry out a specific function