BCPS Fourth Grade Science Pacing Guide 2012-2013

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BCPS Fourth Grade Science Pacing Guide 2012-2013

WCPS Fourth Grade Science Pacing Guide
Nine Weeks: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Physical Science
 Forces and Motion
Matter: Properties of Change
  Energy: Conservation and Transfer / Earth Science
 Systems, Structures, and Processes  Earth History
 Earth in the Universe / Life Science
 Structures and Functions of Living Organisms
 Ecosystems
 Evolution and Genetics
 Molecular Biology
Title: It's Electric!
Essential Standard: 4.P.1 Explain how various forces affect the motion of an object.
4.P.1.1 Explain how magnets interact with all things made of iron and with other magnets to produce motion without touching them.
4.P.1.2 Explain how electrically charged objects push or pull on other electrically charged objects and produce motion.
Key Vocabulary: Magnet, Iron, Metal, Force Field, Pole, Push, Pull, Motion,Attraction, Repulsion, Electric Charge, Electric Discharge
Essential Standard: 4.P.3 Recognize that energy takes various forms that may be grouped based on their interaction with matter.
4.P.3.1 Recognize the basic forms of energy (light, sound, heat, electrical, and magnetic) as the ability to cause motion or create change.
4.P.3.2 Recognize that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to another, and that light can be reflected,
refracted, and absorbed.
Key Vocabulary:Energy, Light, Heat, Thermal Energy, Medium, Reflect, Refract, Absorb, Electricity, Electrical Circuit, Magnet
Clarifying Objective / Student Outcomes / Suggested Activities / Essential Question / Materials/
Websites Needed
4.P.1.1
4.P.1.2
4.P.3.1
4.P.3.2 / I can determine which objects are attracted to magnets by observing them move.
  • I will use a magnet to test for movement in a variety of metal/nonmetal objects.
  • I will sort objects by testing if they have iron in them by using a magnet.
  • I will observe the force field of a magnet.
  • I will diagram the poles on a magnet.
  • I will observe the reaction of the object based on the polarity of the magnet.
I will explain that magnets produce motion in objects made of iron
I can observe the attraction of objects resulting from electrical charges.
  • I will demonstrate how electric charges will result in the motion of the object through experimentation.
  • I will be able to explain how opposites attract and likes repel.
  • I will be able to compare how magnets are related to electrical charges
I can recognize basic forms of energy and how they cause motion or create change.
  • I will observe how electricity flowing through wires creates a magnetic effect. (Electromagnet)
I can describe the basic forms of energy as being light, heat, sound, electrical and motion.
  • I will make a circuit using a battery, bulb, and bell to observe energy is transferred into light, sound and heat.
I can recognize that light travels in a straight line.
  • I will explain the way light travels.
  • I will show how light travels in a straight line.
I can understand light is changed by refraction, reflection, or absorption.
  • I will differentiate between refraction, reflection, and absorption.
  • I will use a prism (sun catcher) to refract the light to show color spectrum.
  • I will use series of mirrors to move the light to a point in room.
  • I will use white and black objects placed in the sun with thermometers to measure temperature over time. (sand or paper)
/ In Magnets 1: Magnetic Pick-ups, students will look at various objects, make predictions about whether they are magnetic, and then test their predictions. This exploration is an introductory activity to magnets and magnetism.
In Magnets 2: How Strong is Your Magnet?, students will discover how barriers and increased distance can vary the strength of a magnet.
Magnet Games by Jean Warren
Electrical Circuits
Light it Up
Light travels in a straight line
The path of Light
I can change the path of light
Reflection and Refraction
Writing Prompts:
  • Give students three different materials and a charged balloon. Have students write about which materials are better attracted to the charged balloon and why.
  • Have students create a chart to predict whether or not given materials are attracted (pulled to) or repelled (pushed away) from a charged balloon. Explain your data from the chart.
  • Write the steps you completed in order to do this experiment.
/ How can a balloon become electrically charged?
How do you know if there is a “push” or “pull” between objects?
How do objects behave after they are electrically charged? / Interactive Magnetisim
Magnets 1: Magnetic Pick-ups - Science NetLinks
Magnet Game
Brain Pop
Smart Exchange Links
BBC - Schools Science Clips - Using electricity
WCPS Fourth Grade Science Pacing Guide
Nine Weeks: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Physical Science
 Forces and Motion
Matter: Properties of Change 
Energy: Conservation and Transfer / Earth Science
 Systems, Structures, and Processes  Earth History
 Earth in the Universe / Life Science
 Structures and Functions of Living Organisms
 Ecosystems
 Evolution and Genetics
 Molecular Biology
Title: Shake, Rattle, and OLD!
Essential Standard: 4.P.2 Understand the composition and properties of matter before and after they undergo a change or interaction
4.P.2.1 Compare the physical properties of samples of matter (strength, hardness, flexibility, ability to conduct heat, ability to conduct electricity,
ability to be attracted by magnets, reactions to water and fire).
4.P.2.2 Explain how minerals are identified using tests for the physical properties of hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak.
4.P.2.3 Classify rocks as metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous based on their composition, how they are formed and the processes that create them.
Key Vocabulary: physical, property, matter, strength, hardness, flexibility, conduct, reaction, composition, mineral, color, luster, cleavage, metamorphic, sedimentary, igneous, sediment, observable, molten, deposit, compacted, transform, streak
Essential Standard: 4.E.2 Understand the use of fossils and changes in the surface of the earth as evidence of the history of the Earth and its changing life forms.
4.E.2.1 Compare fossils (including molds, casts, and preserved parts of plants and animals) to one another and to living organisms.
4.E.2.2 Infer ideas about Earth’s early environments from fossils of plans and animals that lived long ago.
4.E.2.3 Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
Key Vocabulary: fossil, surface, mold, cast, preserved, organism, erosion, weathering, landslide, volcanic eruption, earthquake, existing, evidence, chemical, soil, subtle, drastic, rapid, gravity, incline, pressure, crust, vibration, evidence, environment,
Clarifying Objective / Student Outcomes / Suggested Activities / Essential Question / Materials Needed
4.P.2.1
4.P.2.2
4.P.2.3
4.E.2.1
4.E.2.2
4.E.2.3 / I can compare the physical properties of matter.
  • I will use a graphic organizer to identify the physical properties of matter: strength, hardness, flexibility, ability to conduct heat, ability to conduct electricity, ability to be attracted by magnets, reactions to water and fire.
  • I will describe samples of matter using the physical properties and materials they are made from.
  • I will use a graphic organizer to identify fundamental properties of solid, liquids, gas. (pictures/word sort)
  • I will classify matter based on its physical/compositional properties.
I will experiment with a variety of materials and test them to identify their properties.
I can express how minerals are identified by testing for their properties.
  • I will describe properties of minerals: hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak.
  • I will test mineral samples for hardness and streak.
I will create a presentation on one mineral to describe its properties: color, luster, and cleavage.
I can distinguish rocks based on the process of their formation.
  • I will explain the three main types of rocks and how they are formed: Metamorphic, Sedimentary, and Igneous. (see unpacking for specific ways to define each type)
  • I will classify three kinds of rock formations.
I will illustrate how rocks form and change over time. (rock cycle)
1.I can compare fossils to one another and to living organisms using molds, casts, and preserved parts of plants and animals.
  • I will prove that fossils are evidence of living organisms that one lived on earth.
  • I will determine where, when, and how organisms lived by examining their fossils.
  • I will compare fossils from organisms that lived a long time ago to existing organisms. (Some are similar, but others are quite different.)
  1. I can make inferences about the Earth’s early environment by examining fossils of plants and animals that lived long ago.
  • I will examine fossils to make decisions about the environmental conditions that existed when the organism in the fossil was alive.
  • I will explain how fossils provide information about environmental conditions when they were alive, as well as, where, when, and how the organism lived.
3. I can identify the changes in earth’s surface caused by landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes
  • I will identify ways the surface of the Earth changes over time: erosion and weathering, landslides, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
  • I will model processes that change the surface of the Earth. Ex.: Erosion/Weathering activities, volcano demonstrations, etc.
  • I will compare the processes that change the surface of the Earth by speed and degree of change. (drastic/subtle, slow/rapid)
  • I will predict the effect of wind, water, ice, and chemicals on rock. (Breaks down rock, and can carry soil from on e place to another.)
  • I will describe the effect of gravity on large sections of rock and soil: Landslides.
  • I will describe the effect of heat and pressure of melted rock and gases under ground. (Volcanic Eruptions)
  • I will investigate ways that solid rock can deform or break if under enough pressure.
  • I will explain how earthquakes are caused by the vibrations of breaking or shifting rock.
/ 1. Divide students into cooperative learning groups and give each group 4-5 objects to test. Have students create an organizer to predict/test/summarize each material. Set up testing stations at different locations. Students will predict how the matter will react to the different test, and then test each item. Student will record their findings. Each team will choose one item to describe in writing and fellow classmates will try to identify the materials by the description.
2. Students will create a “Matter” book where they will draw pictures or cut pictures from magazines (classify items) unto the three pages of the book labeled “Solids”, “Liquids” and “Gases”.
3. Working in pairs, students will create their own experiment to test and identify properties of five different materials. Share with the class their experiment, procedures and results.
  1. Students collect rock samples, or use rock collections from home/school. Conduct research using resources to create a chart for exploration with the properties of minerals.
Make your own rock types:
  1. Igneous- Melt chocolate chips and place on aluminum foil. Cool and harden to demonstrate the formation of igneous rocks.
  2. Metamorphic- Slice gumdrops different colors Place between wax paper. Apply pressure and body heat to demonstrate the formation of metamorphic rocks. Snickers or other layered candy also works well to demonstrate the change.
  3. Sedimentary- Place equal portions of flour, rice, and dried beans in a quart jar. Fill the jar with water and shake. Let the jar settle. Record and observe the layers of sediment as they form.
Sedimentary- Make s’mores to demonstrate the layers in sedimentary rocks
1. Students make salt dough from recipe below. They can bring in items like seashells, rocks, leaves, or plastic bugs to make “fossils” that harden overnight.
Ingredients
1 cup salt
2 cups all purpose flour
1 cup lukewarm water
Directions
1. In a large bowl mix salt and flour.
2. Gradually stir in water. Mix well until it forms a doughy consistency.
3. With your hands form a ball with your dough and kneed it for at least 5 minutes. The longer you kneed your dough the smoother it will be.
Store your salt dough in an air tight container and you will be able to use it for days. You can paint your creations with acrylic paints and seal with varnish or polyurethane spray. You can let your salt dough creations air dry, however salt dough can also be dried in the oven. Bake at 200 F until your creation is dry. The amount of time needed to bake your creations depends on size and thickness; thin flat ornaments may only take 45-60 minutes, thicker creations can take 2-3 hours or more. You can increase your oven temperature to 350 F, your dough will dry faster but it may also brown, which won't matter if you are painting your entire creation (you can also cover your dough in the oven before it turns brown).
There are a few options to color your salt dough: 1. Add powdered tempera paint to your flour, 2. add food coloring or paint to the water before you mix it with the salt/flour, or 3. add natural coloring like instant coffee, cocoa, or curry powder.
1. Make fossils for students to excavate.
  1. Mix up the Plaster of Paris according to instructions
  2. Place your mold onto a solid surface
  3. Pour a little of the plaster mix into the mold
  4. Add your mini dinosaur into the mix
  5. Top up with plaster and leave to harden as per instructions
  6. Give your little one a few tools and let them get excavating!
Writing Prompt:
1. Research on fossils.
2. After creating fossils, have students write the necessary steps.

Fossil Inference Lesson plan (click website below for link to cards and extensions)

out Nonsense Cards, Set A in random order. Students place on the table and work in small groups to sequence the eight cards by comparing letters that are common to individual cards, and therefore, overlap. There should be lots of discussion. The first card in the sequence has “Card 1, Set A” in the lower left-hand corner and represents the bottom of the sequence. If the letters “T” and “C” represent fossils in the oldest rock layer, they are the oldest fossils, or the first fossils formed in the past for this sequence of rock layers.
  • Now, look for a card that has either a “T” or “C” written on it. Since this card has a common letter with the first card, it must go on top of the “TC” card. The fossils represented by the letters on this card are “younger” than the “T” or “C” fossils on the “TC” card and indicates fossils in the oldest rock layer. Sequence the remaining cards by the same process. When done you should have a vertical stack of cards with the top card representing the youngest fossils of this rock sequence and the “TC” card at the bottom of the stack indicating the oldest fossils.
  • Questions to ask:
    1. After putting the cards in order, write down the sequence for easy checking. Start at the bottom going oldest to youngest.
    2. How do you know “X” is older than “M”?
    3. Explain why “D” in the rock layer represented by DM is the same age as “M.”
    4. Explain why “D” in the rock layer represented by the OXD is older than “D” in the rock layer represented by DM.
    5. Look carefully at the second set of cards with sketches of fossils on them. Each card represents a particular rock layer with a collection of fossils that are found in that particular rock stratum. All of the fossils represented would be found in sedimentary rocks of marine origin. Figure A gives some background information on the individual fossils.
    6. The oldest rock layer is marked with the letter “M” in the lower left-hand corner. Don’t worry about the other letters at this time. Ask students to find a rock layer that has at least one of the fossils you found in the oldest rock layer. This rock layer would be younger as indicated by the appearance of new fossils in the rock stratum. Keep in mind that extinction is forever. Once an organism disappears from the sequence it cannot reappear later. Use this information to sequence the cards in a vertical stack of fossils in rock strata. Arrange them from oldest to youngest with the oldest layer on the bottom

    Sand Dunes - Wind

    • Have each child wear safety goggles for this activity. Explain to children that sand dunes are formed by the wind blowing sand. Sprinkle a bit of sand in the bottom of a shallow cardboard box. Give each student a short drinking straw and ask him to attempt to blow the sand into a mountain shape. Discuss the time it takes for the wind to create tall sand dunes.
    • Use a large sensory table for this activity. Fill the table with damp sand and small rocks. Show children pictures of the Grand Canyon, BryceCanyon, and the Columbia River Gorge. Explain how thousands of years of running water created the deep canyons. Allow children to build a canyon using the wet sand and rock mixture. When children are satisfied with their canyon land form, slowly pour water through the middle of it, creating a canyon and showing the effects the water has on the rock and sand mixture.
    • In a sensory table, create a thick mud using potting soil and a little bit of water. Have children create mud hills in the sensory table. Add a few blades of grass if you would like. Place ice cubes at the top of each mud hill and allow them to melt. If children do not have the patience to wait for the ice to melt, use a hairdryer to speed the process along. Have children record their observations of the mud as the ice melts.
    Demonstrate Plate Tectonics