Many factors contribute to breast cancer, including some that are genetic. For example, women with a mutation in the BRCA 1 gene have an especially high risk of developing breast cancer. The bar graph below shows the total estimated number of cancer cases for women in the United Kingdom for 2008-2010. Use the data in the bar graph below to answer the following questions. You may ignore the trend line.
Average Number of New Breast Cancer Cases per Year
Females, UK, 2008-2010
Use the graph above to answer the following questions:
1. Which age group had the lowest number of new cases? (Circle your answer)
A. 60-64 B. 55-59 C. less than 30 D. Less than 45
2. Which age group had the highest number of new cases? (Circle your answer)
A. 40-45 B. 55-59 C. 65-69 D. 60-64
3. Women with a mutation in the BRCA 1 gene have an especially high risk of developing breast cancer. Would this be a chromosomal mutation or a gene mutation?______
4. How many cases were recorded between the ages of 60 and 64?______
5. Using the data in the bar graph, explain why you think breast cancer genes are still present in the population? ______
The graph below shows the relationship between maternal age, the age for female reproduction, and the incidence of children born with Down syndrome (a condition that results in an individual having an extra chromosome 21). Use the charts below to answer the following questions.
6. What conclusion is best supported by the data?
A. There is no risk of Down syndrome in children born to mothers under age 34.
B. The risk of Down syndrome increases dramatically in children born to mothers after age 34.
C. The risk of Down syndrome doubles in children born to mothers for each year over the age of 34.
D. There is no correlation between the number of Down syndrome births and age.
7. Look at the karyotype, the chart on the left; is Down’s syndrome a chromosomal mutation or a gene mutation? Explain your reasoning. ______
8. How many babies out of a 1000 are born with Down’s Syndrome at the maternal age of 39?______
9. As the maternal age of the mother increases, does the chance of the baby being born with Down’s syndrome increase or decrease? Use evidence to explain your answer.