AP BIOLOGY STUDY SHEET FOR SEMESTER EXAM
Protons, neutrons, electrons (how determine valence electrons)
Isotopes and ions
Types of bonds: ionic, covalent (polar and nonpolar), and hydrogen bond
How electronegativity influences bonding.
Characteristics of water (hydrogen bonding between molecules, polar covalent bonding within one)
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic (relating to hydrocarbons, nonpolar, polar, ionic)
Acids vs bases (pH, H+conc, donate or release H) and Buffers (when accept H and when take H)
Macromolecules (C,H,O,N: which has which?), examples of each
Monomers of each macromolecule (basic structure of them too), names of bonds joining monomers
Condensation / dehydration vs hydrolysis reactions
Levels of structure in proteins (what types of bonds influence each level?)
For DNA, which nitrogenous bases pair with each other? What is the structure of nucleotide?
Metabolism: anabolic, catabolic
Types of energy (kinetic, potential, chemical)
Enzymes: proteins, catalysts, activation energy, how are they affected by pH, temp etc.
Competitive vs noncompetitive inhibitors
Study one of the exergonic reaction graphs where you analyze energy differences in reactants, products, activation energy
Cell Structure and Function
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells (examples and main differences)
Main organelles to know (function and structure): chloroplast, mitochondria, ribosome, nucleus, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth vs rough), lysosome, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane (integral and peripheral proteins).
Surface area to volume ratio (do smaller or larger cells have a higher ratio? Effect on diffusion?)
Endomembrane system (order of flow, use of vesicles)
Plasmodesmatavs gap junctions
Osmosis and diffusion (also facilitated diffusion: what facilitates it?)
Cells in isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic solutions
Active vs. Passive transport (*remember any kind of diffusion is passive)
There is a U-tube question regarding hypotonic vs. hypertonic and the direction of movement
Gradients: concentration and membrane potential
Sodium/Potassium pump (electrogenic pump)
Endocytosis (pino, phago, receptor mediated) vs exocytosis
Signal Transduction Pathways (reception, transduction, response)
Cell communication by: contact, short distance (neurotransmitters), or long distance (hormones)
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Chloroplasts and mitochondria: know parts of each organelle, where each stage takes place
Look over the review sheet that has the comparison questions (how similar, how different)
Main products of light reaction and of Calvin cycle, also what does each make that theother needs?
Main reactants of light rxn and of calvin (i.e. what do they need to run)
What is chemiosmosis and where does it occur? (photophosphorylation)
Role of light, water, CO2, ADP/ATP, NADP+/NADPH, H+’s, G3P, rubisco, RuBP
How is water split? What is the result of this splitting?
For light reaction, know the photosystems and general path of electrons
For Calvin cycle, don’t focus on intermediate steps, just the end product G3P, the role of rubisco, why it’s a cycle, and what it gives/receives from light reaction.
For the three stages: the main products of each, and what each contributes to the next
Substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation (what, where, how much?)
Fermentation (anaerobic respiration)—alcohol vs lactic acid ferm (what’s main purpose of either)
--where, when, how is ATP made
Role of glucose, oxygen, ADP/ATP, NAD+/NADH, FADH2, H+’s, pyruvate
Cell Reproduction (meiosis and mitosis)
Which cells do mitosis and which do meiosis?
Know the stages of both types of repro. and the MAIN things that happen (don’t stress
centriole movement or spindle formation…just chromosome stuff) **know interphase
Homologous chromosome, centromere, chromatids
Diploid vs. haploid, somatic vs. gamete (know #’s for humans)
Mitosis = diploid to diploid
Meiosis = diploid to haploid (2-chromatid) to haploid (1-chromatid)
Crossing over and independent assortment (where/when occur and what mean)
Be able to recognize the different metaphases (mitosis vs. meiosis I vs. meiosis II)
Plants vs. animals regarding what forms during cytokinesis
Regulation of division with checkpoints, regulated by cyclins and Cdks (kinases)
Cancer cells (they don’t follow checkpoints, don’t stop when touching, uncontrolled growth)
Mendel’s two laws (independent assortment and segregation)
Karyotype (autosomes vs sex chromosomes; difference btwn male and female)
Complete dominance vs incomplete dominance vscodominance
Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (genotypic and phenotypic ratios)
Using rules of probability to predict offspring of multihybrid crosses
Linkage (what does it mean, how do crossover frequencies relate to distance apart…why?)
Nondisjunction: results from meiosis I vs. results from meiosis II.
Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Down syndrome
For DNA Replication:
Contributions of: Griffith, Avery/McCarty/MacLeod, Hershey/Chase, Watson/Crick/Franklin
Base Pairing Rules and Chargaff’s rule to determine amount of any if given amount of one.
What bonds hold the bases together? What holds the sugar phosphate backbone together?
Enzymes involved (helicase, ssbp, primase, DNA poly, ligase)
Leading and Lagging strand (Okazaki fragments)
Be able to calculate the rate of a reaction when given a graph. Remember the graph needs to be some sort of quantity on the y-axis and time on the x-axis (and rate then equals the slope). If rate is already given on the y-axis, you do not calculate slope for rate, you just read rate right off the graph.
Be able to use your equation sheet formulas to calculate: surface area to volume ratio (for both sphere and cube shaped cells), for chi-square (where you calculate expected values using phenotypic ratios), and for water potential (you may or may not need to also calculate solute potential).