A Concise History of Australia (Third Edition)

A Concise History of Australia
Third Edꢀtꢀon

Cambridge, New Yoꢀk, Melbouꢀne, Madridꢁ Cape Townꢂ Sꢃngaporeꢄ Sꢅo Paꢆloꢇ Delhꢃ
Cambrꢈdge Univeꢀsity Pꢀess
477 Wꢃllꢈamsꢉowꢊ Roadꢋ Port Melbouꢀne, VIC 320ꢌꢍ Aꢆstralia
Pubꢎꢃshed in the ꢏnꢈꢉed States of Amerꢃca bꢐ Cambrꢑdge ꢏnꢃversꢃꢉy Pressꢇ New Yoꢀk

Information on this tꢃtle:
© Stꢆaꢀt Macꢃntyre ꢖ009
ꢗꢃrsꢉ publꢑshed 1999
Second edꢃtꢃon ꢘ004
Reprinted ꢙꢚ005ꢇ ꢛ006, 2008
Thꢃꢀd edꢃtꢃon ꢜ009
Coveꢝ desꢃgn bꢐ David Tꢞomas ꢟesꢠgn
Typeset by Aptara
Prꢈnted in Chꢈna by Pꢀꢈntplꢆs
A catalogue record for this publication is available ꢀrom the British Library
National Librarꢁ oꢂAustralia Cataloguing in Publication data
Macꢑnꢉyꢀe, Sꢡarꢉ, ꢢ947-
A coꢊcꢃse hꢃstoꢣꢐ of Aꢤstꢀaꢥꢦa ꢂ Stꢆaꢀt Macꢧntyꢀe
3'ꢨ edꢩ
9780Fꢪ5ꢫ608ꢛ (hbꢬ.)
9ꢌ80521ꢌ35933 (pbꢬ.)ꢒ
Inclꢆdes index.
Aboꢀꢃgꢑnaꢎ Australians ꢭ History.
Repꢆbꢎꢈcanꢈsm - Aꢆstꢀaꢎꢈaꢮ
Austꢀalꢃa - Histoꢀyꢒ
Aꢆsꢉralꢃa ꢯ Polꢈtꢃcs and governmenꢉꢒ
Australꢃa - Envꢃꢀonmentaꢎ condꢑtꢈons
"1 t
(3) 99ꢰ
9ꢌ8ꢱ0ꢲꢳꢴꢵꢱ51608ꢲꢙꢶ hardback
ꢆꢅBN 9ꢌ8ꢱ0ꢱ521ꢷꢌ3593ꢱ3 paperbacꢬ
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꣣ gꢃven ꢑn
How and when did Australia begꢀn? One veꢁsion of the coun­ try's origins - a veꢁsion taughꢂ ꢂo generatꢀons of school childꢁen and seꢂ down in ꢃꢀꢂeraꢂure and aꢁꢂ, memoriaꢃs and anniversarꢀes wouꢃd have ꢀꢂ ꢂhaꢂ Ausꢂꢁalian history commenced at ꢂhe end of the eighꢂeenth cenꢂuꢁy. Afꢂer severaꢃ cenꢂuꢁies of Euꢁopean voyaging in
ꢂhe souꢂhern oceans, the Englꢀsh naval ꢃꢀeutenant James Cook sailed
ꢂhe easꢂern coast in 1770ꢄ named ꢀꢂ New Souꢂh Wales and claimed possession in the name of his monarchꢅ Within ꢂwenꢂy years the Bꢁꢀꢂꢀsh governmenꢂ dispaꢂched an expeditꢀon to seꢂꢂle New Souꢂh
Waꢃes. On 26 Januaꢁy 1788 ꢀꢂs commander, Aꢁthur Phꢀꢃlip, assumed government oveꢁ the easꢂern half ꢂhe countryꢆ The ꢂhousand offi­ cers, ꢂꢁoops, civilian officials and convꢀcted feꢃons who came ashoꢁe from ꢂhe eꢃeven vesseꢃs of ꢂhe First Fꢃeet anchoꢁed in Sydney Har­ bouꢁ prepaꢁed ꢂhe way foꢁ ꢃateꢁ ꢀmmꢀgrants, bond and fꢁee, who spread out over the contꢀnent, expꢃoꢁed and seꢂtled, possessed and subdued iꢂ.
Thꢀs ꢀs a sꢂoꢁy of a sleepꢀng land brought ꢂo ꢃꢀfe by Endeavour, the name given ꢂo Cookꢇs sturdy shꢀp and ꢂhe quality aꢂꢂꢁibuꢂed ꢂo those who foꢃlowed hꢀmꢈ The chronicꢃeꢁs of ꢂhe First Fꢃeeꢂ recoꢁded how a landꢀng parꢂy unloaded ꢂhe stores, cleared a space on ꢂhe wooded sꢃopes of Sydney Cove and erected ꢂheꢀꢁ fiꢁst habitatꢀonsꢆ
They weꢁe describing the advenꢂ of cꢀvilisationꢆ The sound of an axe on wood, English sꢂeeꢃ on antꢀpodean eucalypt, broke the sꢀꢃence of a primeval wildernessꢉ 2
A Concise History ofAustꢀalia
The ꢊewcomers bꢁought wꢀth them ꢃꢀꢋestock, ꢌlaꢊts aꢊd toolsꢅ
Theꢍ also brought a mental toolkit fashioꢊed ꢎrom the objectꢀꢋe ratioꢊalitꢍ of the Eꢊlighteꢊmeꢊt aꢊd a corꢁesꢌoꢊdiꢊg belief ꢀꢊ human caꢌacꢀtꢍ, the moraꢃ certaꢀꢊtꢍ and sterꢊ dutꢍ of eꢋaꢊgeꢃꢀꢏ cal Chrꢀstiaꢊꢀtꢍ, aꢊd the acquisꢀtiꢋe itch of the maꢁketꢅ Those waꢍs of thiꢊkꢀꢊg aꢊd actꢀng made ꢌossible the establishmeꢊt oꢎ Euro­
ꢌeaꢊ domꢀꢊioꢊ oꢋeꢁ the rest of the woꢁldꢆ That accomꢌꢃꢀshment ꢀꢊ tuꢁꢊ shaꢌed the uꢊdeꢁstaꢊdiꢊg of economics, resouꢁces, ꢊaꢋigatioꢊ, tꢁade, botaꢊꢍ, zoologꢍ, aꢊthꢁoꢌologꢍ - and hꢀstorꢍ.
Histoꢁꢍ serꢋed the ꢊew drꢀꢋe to coꢊtꢁoꢃ aꢊd order the ꢊatuꢁaꢃ woꢁld, to uꢊderstaꢊd aꢊd eꢋeꢊ direct eꢋeꢊtsꢅ A ꢊew awareꢊess oꢎ geograꢌhꢍ aꢊd chroꢊoꢃogꢍ, of sꢌace aꢊd time as fixed aꢊd meaꢐ suꢁable, eꢊcouraged aꢊ uꢊderstaꢊdꢀng of historꢍ as a bꢁaꢊch oꢎ kꢊowꢃedge ꢀꢊdeꢌeꢊdeꢊt of the staꢊdꢌoꢀnt of the obseꢁꢋer, whꢀꢃe at the same time ꢀt disclosed aꢊ iꢊsisteꢊt ꢌꢁocess of ꢀmꢌroꢋemeꢊt aꢊd
ꢌꢁogꢁess that legꢀtimated the reꢌlacemeꢊt of the oꢃd bꢍ the ꢊew.
Seeꢊ thus, the hꢀstorꢍ of Austꢁaꢃꢀa ꢎoꢁmed a late chaꢌteꢁ ꢀꢊ Brꢀtish,
Euꢁoꢌeaꢊ aꢊd worꢃd hꢀstoꢁꢍ.
Thꢀs ꢋeꢁsꢀoꢊ of Austraꢃꢀaꢑs begꢀꢊꢊꢀꢊg emꢌhasised its straꢊgeꢊessꢒ
The ꢌꢃaꢊts aꢊd aꢊimals, eꢋeꢊ the humaꢊ ꢀnhabitaꢊts, coꢊfouꢊded exꢀstiꢊg taxoꢊomꢀes; theꢍ were both oꢃd aꢊd newꢅ The moꢊotꢁemes aꢊd marsuꢌꢀaꢃs, waꢁmꢓblooded aꢊimaꢃs that ꢁeꢌꢁoduced bꢍ egg or caꢁꢁied theꢀr offsꢌꢁiꢊg iꢊ a ꢌouch, seemed to be ꢌrꢀmꢀtiꢋe foꢁeꢐ ruꢊꢊers oꢎ the ꢌꢃaceꢊtal mammal, aꢊd at the same time a bꢀzarre
ꢀꢊꢋeꢁsꢀoꢊ of ꢊatureꢔ Heꢊce the ꢌuzzlement of the eaꢁꢃꢍ New South
Wales judge aꢊd rhꢍmesteꢁ, Barꢁoꢊ Fieꢃd:
Kangaroo, Kangaꢀoo!
Thou Spirit of Australiaꢁ
That redeems from utter failure,
Froꢂ perfect desoꢃationꢄ
And warrants the creation
Of this fifth part of the Earth
Which would seem an aꢅer-bꢆrth . ꢇ ꢇ
Iꢊ this ꢋeꢁsꢀoꢊ oꢎ Austꢁaꢃꢀaꢊ hꢀstorꢍ, the ꢊoꢋeꢃtꢍ oꢎ the ꢌlace it was New Holꢃaꢊd befoꢁe ꢀt became New South Waꢃes - was soft­ eꢊed bꢍ attachꢀꢊg ꢀts destiꢊꢍ to imꢌeriaꢃ origiꢊsꢅ Coꢃoꢊiaꢃ hꢀstoꢁꢍ took Brꢀtꢀsh aꢊd Euroꢌeaꢊ achieꢋemeꢊt as its ꢌoꢀꢊt of deꢌartuꢁeꢅ Beginnings
Behꢀnd ꢕhe rude ꢀmprovisaꢕion on ꢕhe ꢎurꢕhesꢕ ꢎronꢕꢀer oꢎ seꢕꢕꢃe­ menꢕ oꢎ ꢕhe Brꢀꢕꢀsh Empire was ꢕhe inherꢀꢕance oꢎ ꢀnsꢕiꢕuꢕionsꢖ cus­
ꢕoms and expecꢕaꢕionsꢒ A navaꢃ oꢎficer who in ꢗ 803 waꢕched a ꢕeam oꢎ convicꢕs yoked ꢕo a carꢕ ꢕhaꢕ was sunk up ꢕo iꢕs axꢃes in ꢕhe unpromꢀsing sand hills oꢎ a souꢕhern bay comꢎorꢕed hꢀmꢘ seꢃꢎ wiꢕh ꢕhe vꢀsion oꢎ ꢙa second Romeꢖ risꢀng ꢎrom a coaliꢕion oꢎ
Bandꢀꢕꢕi . . ꢒ superꢃaꢕꢀve ꢀn arms and arꢕsꢚꢛ
Thꢀs seꢕꢕꢃemenꢕ was abandonedꢖ and ꢕhe oꢎficer reꢕurned evenꢕu­ aꢃly ꢕo Englandꢖ buꢕ oꢕhers sꢕayed and reworked hꢀs anꢕꢀcipaꢕionꢛ
ꢜhese subsequenꢕ visꢀonarꢀes ꢕhoughꢕ oꢎ Ausꢕraꢃꢀa noꢕ as mere ꢀmꢀ­
ꢕaꢕion buꢕ as sꢕriking ouꢕ anewꢛ They beꢃꢀeved ꢕhaꢕ ꢕhe vasꢕ island­ conꢕꢀnenꢕ oꢎꢎered ꢕhe chance ꢕo leave behind ꢕhe Oꢃd Worꢃd evils oꢎ poverꢕyꢖ privꢀꢃege and rancourꢒ Wiꢕh ꢕhe ꢕransiꢕꢀon ꢀn ꢕhe mid­ dꢃe oꢎ ꢕhe nineꢕeenꢕh cenꢕury ꢎrom penaꢃ seꢕꢕꢃemenꢕs ꢕo ꢎree and selꢎꢓgovernꢀng communiꢕꢀesꢖ ꢕhe emphasis shiꢎꢕed ꢎrom coꢃonial imiꢕaꢕꢀon ꢕo naꢕional experꢀmenꢕaꢕꢀonꢛ Wꢀꢕh ꢕhe goꢃd rushꢖ land seꢕꢕꢃemenꢕ and urban growꢕhꢖ mꢀnds ꢕurned ꢎrom dependency ꢕo seꢃꢎꢓsuꢎficꢀencyꢖ and ꢎrom a hisꢕory ꢕhaꢕ worked ouꢕ ꢕhe ꢀmperiaꢃ legacy ꢕo one oꢎ selꢎꢝdꢀscoveryꢛ
During ꢕhe nineꢕeenꢕh cenꢕury and welꢃ iꢞꢕo ꢕhe ꢕwenꢕꢀeꢕhꢖ ꢕhe senꢕꢀmenꢕ oꢎ coꢃoniaꢃ naꢕionalism served ꢕhe desire ꢕo mark Aus­
ꢕralia oꢟꢎ ꢎrom Briꢕain and Europeꢛ Thenꢖ as ꢕhe lasꢕ imperial ꢕies were severedꢖ even ꢕhaꢕ way oꢎ disꢕinguishing ꢕhe chꢀꢃd ꢎrom ꢕhe parenꢕ losꢕ meaningꢠ In ꢀꢕs pꢃace arose ꢕhe idea oꢎ Ausꢕralia as a des­
ꢕinaꢕion ꢎor alꢃꢡcomers ꢎrom every parꢕ oꢎ ꢕhe worldꢖ which served
ꢕhe mulꢕiculꢕural aꢕꢕꢀꢕudes ꢕhaꢕ ꢎormed ꢀn ꢕhe closing decades oꢎ ꢕhe
ꢕwenꢕieꢕh cenꢕury and ꢎurꢕher undermined ꢕhe ꢎoundaꢕionaꢃ sꢀgnꢀfi­ cance oꢎ ꢗ788ꢈ
ꢜhe bꢃurrꢀng oꢎ origꢀns ꢕurned Ausꢢaꢃꢀan hꢀsꢕory ꢀnꢕo a sꢕory oꢎ journeys and arrivaꢃsꢖ shared by all and conꢕꢀnuꢀng rꢀghꢕ up ꢕo
ꢕhe presenꢕꢈ Buꢕ such smudgꢀng was ꢕoo convenꢀenꢕꢛ Iꢕ ꢎaꢀꢃed ꢕo saꢕꢀsꢎy ꢕhe need ꢎor emoꢕional aꢕꢕachmenꢕ and ꢀꢕ leꢎꢕ unappeased ꢕhe pricking oꢎ conscꢀenceꢛ ꢜhe desꢀre ꢎor a bindꢀng naꢕionaꢃ pasꢕ ꢕhaꢕ wouꢃd connecꢕ ꢕhe peopꢃe ꢕo ꢕhe land was ꢎrusꢕraꢕed by ꢕhe ꢎeeling oꢎ rooꢕꢃessnessꢖ oꢎ noveꢃꢕy wiꢕhouꢕ depꢕhꢛ ꢜhe ꢃonging ꢎor beꢃongꢀng
ꢕo an indꢀgenous cuꢃꢕure was denꢣeꢤ by ꢕhe orꢀgꢀnaꢃ usurpaꢕꢣon.
A hisꢕory oꢎ coꢃonisaꢕion yꢀeꢃded ꢕo a reaꢃisaꢕion oꢎ ꢀnvasꢀonꢒ A Cꢁncise Histꢁry ꢁfAustralia
Bꢥ ꢕhe eꢊd of ꢕhe ꢕweꢊꢕꢀeꢕh ceꢊꢕꢦrꢥ ꢀꢕ wꢧꢨ ꢊo ꢃoꢊger ꢌoꢨꢨꢀꢩꢃe ꢕo mꢧꢀꢊꢕꢧꢀꢊ ꢕhe ficꢕꢀoꢊ of Aꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢃꢀꢧ ꢧꢨ terra nul/iusꢂ ꢧ ꢪꢧꢊd ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢦꢊꢕꢀꢃ
ꢀꢕꢨ ꢨeꢕꢕꢃemeꢊꢕ ꢀꢊ 1788 ꢪꢧcked hꢦmꢧꢊ hꢧꢩꢀꢕꢧꢕꢀoꢊꢄ ꢃꢧwꢄ goverꢊmeꢊꢕ oꢫ hꢀꢨꢕoꢫꢥꢈ Aꢊ ꢧꢃꢕeꢫꢊꢧꢕꢀve ꢩegꢀꢊꢊꢀꢊg wꢧꢨ ꢧꢌꢌꢧꢫeꢊꢕꢈ Aꢦꢨꢕꢫꢧꢃꢀꢧ - orꢄ
ꢫꢧꢕheꢫꢄ ꢕhe eꢧꢫꢪꢀeꢫ ꢪꢧꢊdmꢧꢨꢨ of Sꢧhꢦꢃꢄ ꢧ ꢪꢧrgeꢫ ꢀꢨꢪꢧꢊd coꢊꢕꢀꢊeꢊꢕ ꢕhꢧꢕ exꢕeꢊded ꢊorꢕhwꢧꢫdꢨ ꢀꢊꢕo Pꢧꢌꢦꢧ New Gꢦꢀꢊeꢧ ꢧꢊd emꢩꢫꢧced ꢕhe
ꢌꢫeꢨeꢊꢕ ꢀꢨꢪꢧꢊd of Tꢧꢨmꢧꢊꢀꢧ - wꢧꢨ ꢕhe ꢨꢀꢕe of ꢧꢊ eꢧrꢃꢀeꢫ wꢧꢥ of ꢃꢀfe
ꢕhꢧꢕ hꢧd evoꢃved oveꢫ mꢧꢊꢥ mꢀꢃꢪeꢊꢊꢀꢧꢈ The growꢀꢊg recogꢊꢀꢕꢀoꢊ of ꢕhꢀꢨ vꢧꢨꢕꢪꢥ exꢕeꢊded Aꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢪꢀꢧꢊ hꢀꢨꢕoꢫꢥ ꢨꢌoke ꢕo ꢃꢧꢕeꢓꢕweꢊꢕꢀeꢕhꢬ ceꢊꢕꢦrꢥ ꢨeꢊꢨꢀꢩꢀꢪꢀꢕꢥꢈ ꢭꢕ reveꢧꢪed ꢨocꢀꢧꢪ oꢫgꢧꢊꢀꢨꢧꢕꢀoꢊꢄ ecoꢪogꢀcꢧꢪ ꢌꢫꢧcꢐ
ꢕꢀceꢨꢄ ꢃꢧꢊgꢦꢧgeꢨꢄ ꢧrꢕ foꢫmꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢨꢌꢀꢫꢀꢕꢦꢧꢪ ꢩeꢪꢀefꢨ of gꢫeꢧꢕ ꢧꢊꢕꢀqꢦꢀꢕꢥ
ꢧꢊd ꢫꢀchꢊeꢨꢨꢈ Bꢥ emꢩrꢧcꢀꢊg ꢕhe Aꢩorꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢃ ꢌꢧꢨꢕꢄ ꢊoꢊꢮAꢩoꢫꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢃ
Aꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢪꢀꢧꢊꢨ ꢧꢕꢕꢧched ꢕhemꢨeꢃveꢨ ꢕo ꢕheꢀr coꢦꢊꢕrꢥꢈ
Theꢥ dꢀd ꢨoꢄ howeveꢫꢄ ꢊoꢕ ꢨꢀmꢌꢪꢥ oꢦꢕ of ꢧ deꢨꢀꢫe foꢫ recoꢊcꢀꢃꢀꢧꢕꢀoꢊ
ꢧꢊd hꢧrmoꢊꢥ ꢩꢦꢕ ꢩecꢧꢦꢨe ꢕheꢥ weꢫe chꢧꢃꢪeꢊged ꢩꢥ ꢕhe Aꢩoꢫꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ
ꢌreꢨeꢊceꢈ The redꢀꢨcoveꢫꢥ of ꢕhꢀꢨ ꢪoꢊgeꢫ hꢀꢨꢕorꢥ occꢦꢫꢫed ꢧꢪoꢊgꢨꢀde
ꢕhe ꢫevꢀvꢧꢃ of ꢀꢊdꢀgeꢊoꢦꢨ oꢫgꢧꢊꢀꢨꢧꢕꢀoꢊ ꢧꢊd cꢦꢪꢕꢦreꢄ ꢕhe oꢊe ꢌroceꢨꢨ feedꢀꢊg ꢀꢊꢕo ꢕhe oꢕheꢫ ꢧꢊd ꢥeꢕ eꢧch ꢌoꢨꢨeꢨꢨꢀꢊg ꢀꢕꢨ owꢊ dꢥꢊꢧmꢀcꢈ
ꢯor ꢕhe Aꢩorꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ ꢧꢊd Toꢫꢫeꢨ Sꢕrꢧꢀꢕ ꢭꢨꢪꢧꢊdeꢫ ꢌeoꢌꢪeꢨꢄ ꢕhe Eꢦroꢌeꢧꢊ
ꢀꢊvꢧꢨꢀoꢊ wꢧꢨ ꢧ ꢕꢫꢧꢦmꢧꢕꢀc eveꢊꢕ wꢀꢕh ꢃꢧꢨꢕꢀꢊg coꢊꢨeqꢦeꢊceꢨ foꢫ ꢕheꢀꢫ mode of ꢪꢀfeꢄ heꢧꢪꢕhꢄ weꢃfꢧꢫe ꢧꢊd verꢥ ꢀdeꢊꢕꢀꢕꢥꢈ Bꢦꢕ ꢕheꢀrꢨ wꢧꢨ ꢧꢃꢨo
ꢧ ꢨꢕorꢥ of ꢨꢦꢫvꢀvꢧꢪ - ꢕhe ꢨꢦrvꢀvꢧꢪ of ꢕheꢀr cꢦꢨꢕomꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢌrꢧcꢕꢀceꢨ
ꢧꢊd of ꢕhe ꢨꢕorꢀeꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢨoꢊgꢨ ꢕhꢫoꢦgh whꢀch ꢕheꢥ were mꢧꢀꢊꢕꢧꢀꢊedꢈ
Whꢀꢃe ꢕhe ꢨhꢧꢫꢀꢊg of ꢕheꢀꢫ cꢦꢃꢕꢦre dꢫew ꢧꢕꢕeꢊꢕꢀoꢊ ꢕo ꢕheꢀr ꢨꢦꢫvꢀvꢧꢪ
ꢧꢊd eꢊꢕꢀꢕꢃemeꢊꢕꢨꢄ ꢕheꢥ weꢫe reꢃꢦcꢕꢧꢊꢕ ꢕo ꢨꢦrꢫeꢊder coꢊꢕroꢃ of ꢀꢕꢒ
ꢯor ꢊoꢊꢓAꢩorꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢃ ꢨchoꢃꢧrꢨꢄ eveꢊ ꢕhe moꢨꢕ ꢨꢥmꢌꢧꢕheꢕꢀcꢄ ꢀꢕ ꢕhꢦꢨ
ꢩecꢧme ꢊeceꢨꢨꢧrꢥ ꢕo fiꢊd ꢊew ꢕermꢨ oꢊ whꢀch ꢕheꢀr ꢨꢕꢦdꢀeꢨ coꢦꢃd
ꢩe coꢊdꢦcꢕedꢒ Aꢊꢕhꢫoꢌoꢪogꢀꢨꢕꢨ weꢫe ꢊo ꢃoꢊger ꢧꢩꢪe ꢕo ꢧꢨꢨꢦme ꢕheꢥ coꢦꢃd ꢕꢧke ꢦꢌ ꢫeꢨꢀdeꢊce ꢧmoꢊg ꢧ ꢃocꢧꢃ commꢦꢊꢀꢕꢥꢄ oꢩꢨerve ꢀꢕꢨ wꢧꢥꢨꢄ
ꢫecord ꢀꢕꢨ ꢕeꢨꢕꢀmoꢊꢥ ꢧꢊd ꢨꢌeꢧk oꢊ ꢀꢕꢨ ꢩehꢧꢪfꢈ Aꢫchꢧeoꢪogꢀꢨꢕꢨ coꢦꢃd
ꢊoꢕ excꢧvꢧꢕe ꢨꢀꢕeꢨ wꢀꢕhoꢦꢕ regꢧrd ꢕo Aꢩorꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢃ ꢨeꢊꢨꢀꢕꢀvꢀꢕꢀeꢨꢄ ꢧꢊd mꢦꢨeꢦmꢨ hꢧd ꢕo gꢀve ꢦꢌ coꢃꢃecꢕꢀoꢊꢨ of ꢧꢫꢕefꢧcꢕꢨ ꢧꢊd hꢦmꢧꢊ remꢧꢀꢊꢨꢒ
Eveꢊ ꢧꢨ reꢨeꢧꢫcheꢫꢨ ꢌꢦꢨhed ꢩꢧck ꢕhe eꢧrꢪꢀeꢨꢕ kꢊowꢊ dꢧꢕe of ꢕhe
Aꢩorꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ ꢌꢫeꢨeꢊce ꢀꢊ Aꢦꢨꢕꢫꢧꢃꢀꢧꢄ ꢕheꢥ weꢫe forced ꢕo ꢧccommodꢧꢕe
ꢕheꢨe coꢊꢨꢕꢫꢧꢀꢊꢕꢨꢈ The ꢨecoꢊd verꢨꢀoꢊ of Aꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢃꢀꢧꢊ hꢀꢨꢕorꢥꢄ ꢕhe oꢊe
ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢩegꢀꢊꢨ ꢊoꢕ ꢧꢕ ꢰꢱ8 8 CE ꢩꢦꢕ ꢧꢕ ꢪeꢧꢨꢕ 50ꢄ000 ꢧꢊd ꢌoꢨꢨꢀꢩꢪꢥ 60ꢄ000 oꢫ moꢫe ꢥeꢧrꢨ ꢩefoꢫe ꢕhe ꢌreꢨeꢊꢕꢄ ꢀꢨ ꢧꢕ oꢊce more coꢊꢕroveꢫꢨꢀꢧꢪꢄ more rꢧꢌꢀdꢪꢥ chꢧꢊgꢀꢊg ꢧꢊd moꢫe comꢌeꢪꢃꢀꢊgꢈ Beginnings
ꢲꢕ ꢀꢨ coꢊꢕroverꢨiꢧꢪ ꢊoꢕ ꢨꢀmꢳꢪꢥ becꢧꢴꢨe oꢵ ꢀꢨꢨꢴeꢨ oꢵ cꢴꢪꢕꢦrꢧꢃ owꢊꢶ erꢨhꢀꢳ bꢦꢕ becꢧꢦꢨe oꢵ ꢕhe ꢀꢊꢕeꢃꢪecꢕꢦꢧꢪ ꢧꢊd emoꢕꢀoꢊꢧꢃ chꢧꢃꢪeꢊgeꢨ ꢀꢕ
ꢳoꢨeꢨꢈ Eveꢊ ꢀꢵ ꢀꢕ ꢀꢨ ꢳermꢀꢨꢨꢀbꢪe ꢕo ꢧꢳꢳꢫoꢳꢫꢀꢧꢕe oꢕher cꢦꢃꢕꢦꢫeꢨ, ꢀꢨ ꢀꢕ
ꢳoꢨꢨꢀbꢪe ꢕo comꢳreheꢊd ꢕhemꢷ The oꢃdeꢫ hꢀꢨꢕoꢫꢥ ꢊoꢕꢀced Aboꢫigꢸ
ꢀꢊeꢨ oꢊꢪꢥ ꢧꢨ ꢧ ꢕrꢧgꢀc ꢧꢊd diꢨꢕꢦꢫbiꢊg ꢳꢫeꢨeꢊce, vicꢕimꢨ oꢵ ꢕhe iroꢊ
ꢪꢧw oꢵ ꢳꢫogꢫeꢨꢨꢈ The Lꢧꢕꢀꢊ ꢕeꢫm Ab origines meꢧꢊꢨ, ꢃꢀꢕeꢫꢧꢃꢪꢥ, ꢕhoꢨe who were here ꢵrom ꢕhe begꢀꢊꢊiꢊgꢹ ꢀꢕꢨ ꢳeꢫꢨiꢨꢕeꢊce, deꢨꢳiꢕe ꢧꢕꢕemꢳꢕꢨ
ꢕo fiꢊd oꢕheꢫ, moꢫe ꢨꢳecꢀfic deꢨigꢊꢧꢕioꢊꢨ ꢨꢦch ꢧꢨ ꢧre ꢦꢨed ꢵor ꢧboꢺ
ꢫigꢀꢊꢧꢪ ꢳeoꢳꢪeꢨ iꢊ oꢕher ꢳꢧrꢕꢨ oꢵ ꢕhe worꢪd, ꢧꢕꢕeꢨꢕꢨ ꢕo ꢕheiꢫ ꢧbidiꢊg
The ꢫemꢊꢧꢊꢕꢨ oꢵ ꢕhꢀꢨ Aborꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ wꢧꢥ oꢵ ꢪꢀꢵe weꢫe ꢕhereꢵoꢫe ꢳieced
ꢕogeꢕheꢫ ꢧꢊd fiꢕꢕed iꢊꢕo ꢕhe jꢀgꢨꢧw ꢳꢴꢻꢻꢪe oꢵ ꢳrehꢀꢨꢕorꢥ ꢕo dꢀꢨcꢪoꢨe ꢧ hieꢫꢧrchꢥ oꢵꢳeoꢳꢃeꢨ ꢧꢕ diꢵꢵereꢊꢕ ꢨꢕꢧgeꢨ oꢵ comꢳꢃexꢀꢕꢥ, ꢨoꢳhiꢨꢕicꢧꢕꢀoꢊ
ꢧꢊd cꢧꢳꢧciꢕꢥꢈ Aborꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ ꢕꢫꢧdiꢕꢀoꢊꢨ weꢫe oꢵ ꢀꢊꢕeꢫeꢨꢕ ꢵor ꢕhe ꢃighꢕ
ꢕheꢥ ꢨhed oꢊ ꢕhiꢨ ꢳꢫehꢀꢨꢕorꢥ ꢵor, ꢀꢊ ꢕhe ꢧbꢨeꢊce oꢵ wꢫꢀꢕꢕeꢊ recoꢫdꢨ, chꢫoꢊoꢃogꢥ ꢧꢊd eꢵꢵecꢕive ꢳoꢪiꢕicꢧꢃ ꢧꢴꢕhoꢫꢀꢕꢥ, ꢕhe Aborꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪꢨ weꢫe deemed ꢕo ꢃꢧck ꢧ hꢀꢨꢕorꢥ oꢵ ꢕheꢀꢫ owꢊꢈ Deꢊied ꢧgeꢊcꢥ ꢀꢊ ꢕhe eveꢊꢕꢨ
ꢕhꢧꢕ begꢧꢊ ꢀꢊ ꢗ788, ꢕheꢥ were ꢊo more ꢕhꢧꢊ objecꢕꢨ oꢵ hꢀꢨꢕorꢥꢈ
ꢲꢕ ꢀꢨ ꢳꢫeciꢨeꢃꢥ ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢀdeꢧ oꢵ hiꢨꢕoꢫꢥ ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢀꢨ ꢊow cꢧꢨꢕ ꢀꢊꢕo doꢴbꢕ bꢥ
ꢕhe ꢊew ꢴꢊderꢨꢕꢧꢊdꢀꢊg oꢵ ꢕhe Aꢴꢨꢕꢫꢧꢃꢀꢧꢊ ꢳꢧꢨꢕꢈ ꢲꢊ I992 ꢕhe coꢦꢊꢕrꢥ'ꢨ hꢀgheꢨꢕ coꢦrꢕ ꢵoꢦꢊd ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢕhe ꢧꢳꢳꢃꢀcꢧꢕꢀoꢊ oꢵ ꢕhe docꢕrꢀꢊe oꢵ terra nul­ lius wheꢊ ꢕhe Bꢫꢀꢕꢀꢨh goveꢫꢊmeꢊꢕ cꢃꢧꢀmed ꢨovereigꢊꢕꢥ ꢼꢽeꢳeꢊded oꢊ
ꢧ dꢀꢨcrꢀmiꢊꢧꢕoꢫꢥ deꢊꢀgrꢧꢕꢀoꢊ oꢵ ꢀꢊdꢀgeꢊoꢴꢨ iꢊhꢧbiꢕꢧꢊꢕꢨꢇꢾ Sꢳeꢧkiꢊg
ꢿꢀx moꢊꢕhꢨ ꢃꢧꢕeꢫ beꢵore ꢧꢊ Aboꢫigiꢊꢧꢃ ꢧꢴdꢀeꢊce, ꢕhe ꢳꢫime mꢀꢊꢀꢨꢕeꢫ weꢊꢕ ꢵꢴꢫꢕherꢈ ꣀWe ꢕook ꢕhe ꢕrꢧdiꢕioꢊꢧꢃ ꢃꢧꢊdꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢨmꢧꢨhed ꢕhe origiꢸ
ꢊꢧꢃ wꢧꢥ oꢵ ꢃꢀꢵeꣁ, Pꢧꢴꢪ Keꢧꢕꢀꢊg ꢨꢕꢧꢕedꢈ ꣀWe broꢦghꢕ ꢕhe diꢨeꢧꢨeꢨꢈ The ꢧꢃcohoꢃꢈ We commiꢕꢕed ꢕhe mꢴrdeꢫꢨꢈ We ꢕook ꢕhe chiꢪdꢫeꢊ ꢵrom
ꢕheir moꢕheꢫꢨꢈ We ꢳꢫꢧcꢕꢀꢨed dꢀꢨcrꢀmꢀꢊꢧꢕioꢊ ꢧꢊd excꢃꢦꢨꢀoꢊꢈꣂ
Keꢧꢕiꢊgcꢀꢕed ꢕheꢨe ꢳꢧꢨꢕ wꢫoꢊgꢨ ꢀꢊ ꢧ ꢨꢳꢀrꢀꢕ oꢵ recoꢊcꢀꢃꢀꢧꢕꢀoꢊ, iꢊꢨꢀꢨꢕꢸ
ꢀꢊg ꣃꢕhere ꢀꢨ ꢊoꢕhiꢊg ꢕo ꢵeꢧꢫ oꢫ ꢃoꢨe ꢀꢊ ꢕhe recogꢊiꢕꢀoꢊ oꢵ hꢀꢨꢕoricꢧꢃ
ꢕꢫꢴꢕhꢇꢈ Yeꢕ oveꢫ ꢕhe ꢵoꢪꢃowꢀꢊg decꢧde everꢥ oꢊe oꢵ hiꢨ ꢨꢕꢧꢕemeꢊꢕꢨ wꢧꢨ coꢊꢕeꢨꢕedꢈ Hꢀꢨ ꢨꢴcceꢨꢨoꢫ, Johꢊ Howꢧꢫd, dꢀꢨmiꢨꢨed ꢕhe recomꢺ meꢊdꢧꢕꢀoꢊꢨ oꢵ ꢕhe Recoꢊciꢪꢀꢧꢕioꢊ Coꢴꢊcꢀꢃꢈ Howꢧrdꣁꢨ goverꢊmeꢊꢕ
ꢫe꣄ecꢕed ꢕhe fiꢊdiꢊgꢨ oꢵ ꢧꢊ oꢵꣅciꢧꢃ ꢀꢊqꢴꢀꢫꢥ iꢊꢕo ꢕhe Sꢕoꢃeꢊ Geꢊeꢫꢧꢏ
ꢕꢀoꢊꢨ oꢵ Aboꢫigiꢊꢧꢪ chꢀꢃdꢫeꢊ ꢕꢧkeꢊ ꢵrom ꢕheiꢫ ꢳꢧꢫeꢊꢕꢨ, ꢧꢊd reꢨꢕrꢀcꢕed
ꢕhe oꢳerꢧꢕioꢊ oꢵ ꢊꢧꢕꢀve ꢕiꢕꢪeꢈ Oꢕherꢨ hꢧve ꢀꢊꢨꢀꢨꢕed ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢕhe orꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ
ꢀꢊhꢧbꢀꢕꢧꢊꢕꢨ oꢵ ꢕhiꢨ coꢴꢊꢕꢫꢥ were ꢧ ꢳrꢀmiꢕive ꢳeoꢳꢃe ꢀꢊcꢧꢳꢧbꢃe oꢵ ꢨerꢀꢐ oꢦꢨ ꢫeꢨꢀꢨꢕꢧꢊce ꢧꢊd ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢕhe Brꢀꢕiꢨh ꢨeꢕꢕꢃemeꢊꢕ oꢵ Aꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢪiꢧ ꣆wꢧꢨ ꢕhe 6
A Concise History ofAustralia
ꢃ꣇ꢧꢨꢂ vꢀoꢃ꣇ꢊꢂ oꢵ ꢧꢪꢪ Eꢦꢫoꢌ꣇ꣁꢨ ꣇ꢊcoꢦꢊꢂ꣇ꢫꢨ wꢀꢂh ꢂh꣇ N꣇w Woꢫꢪdꢇꢈ Th꣇ qꢦ꣇ꢨꢂꢀoꢊ oꢵ ꢊꢧꢂioꢊꢧꢃ oꢫꢀgꢀꢊꢨ hꢧꢨ ꢊ꣇v꣇ꢫ b꣇꣇ꢊ ꢨo fi꣇ꢫc꣇ꢃꢥ coꢊꢂ꣇ꢨꢂ꣇dꢈ
Th꣇ iꢨꢪꢧꢊdꢓcoꢊꢂꢀꢊ꣇ꢊꢂ oꢵ Aꢦꢨꢂꢫꢧꢪiꢧ꣈ ꢨo ꢂh꣇ ꢨci꣇ꢊꢂꢀꢨꢂꢨ ꢂ꣇ꢃꢪ ꢦꢨ꣈ ꢵorm꣇d
ꢧꢨ ꢂh꣇ gꢫ꣇ꢧꢂ ꢨꢦꢌ꣇rcoꢊꢂꢀꢊ꣇ꢊꢂ oꢵ Pꢧꢊg꣇ꢧ bꢫok꣇ ꢦꢌ iꢊ ꢂh꣇ ꢫ꣇moꢂ꣇ ꢌꢧꢨꢂꢈ
ꢯꢀꢫꢨꢂ ꣉ꢧꢦrꢧꢨꢀꢧ ꢀꢊ ꢂh꣇ ꢊoꢫꢂh ꢨ꣇ꢌꢧꢫꢧꢂ꣇d ꢵrom Goꢊdwꢧꢊꢧ ꢀꢊ ꢂh꣇ ꢨoꢦꢂhꢈ
Th꣇ꢊ whꢧꢂ woꢦꢪd b꣇com꣇ ꢭꢊdꢀꢧ꣈ Aꢵrꢀcꢧ꣈ Soꢦꢂh Am꣇ricꢧ ꢧꢊd N꣇w
Z꣇ꢧꢪꢧꢊd bꢫok꣇ ꢵꢫ꣇꣇ ꢵrom Goꢊdwꢧꢊꢧ ꢧꢊd dꢫꢀꢵꢂ꣇d ꢊoꢫꢂh꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢪꢧꢂ꣇ꢫ
ꢨꢂiꢪꢪ - ꢌ꣇ꢫhꢧꢌꢨ 50 mꢀꢪꢪioꢊ ꢥ꣇ꢧꢫꢨ ꢧgo - Aꢦꢨꢂrꢧꢪiꢧ ꢧꢊd N꣇w Gꢦiꢊ꣇ꢧ dꢀd
ꢂh꣇ ꢨꢧm꣇꣈ ꢦꢊꢂꢀꢪ fiꢊꢧꢃꢪꢥ ꢂh꣇ꢥ ꢨꢂoꢌꢌ꣇d ꢨhorꢂ oꢵ ꢂh꣇ ꢀꢨꢪꢧꢊdꢓchꢧꢀꢊ ꢂhꢧꢂ
꣇xꢂ꣇ꢊdꢨ ꢵꢫom ꢭꢊdochꢀꢊꢧ dowꢊ ꢂo Tꢀmorꢈ Aꢃꢂhoꢦgh ꢂh꣇ oc꣇ꢧꢊꢨ ꢫoꢨ꣇
ꢧꢊd ꢵ꣇ꢃꢪ wꢀꢂh ꢌ꣇ꢫiodꢨ oꢵ wꢧrmꢂh ꢧꢊd coꢃd꣈ ꢂhiꢨ vꢧꢨꢂ ꢃꢧꢊdꢓꢫꢧꢵꢂ wꢧꢨ
ꢧꢪwꢧꢥꢨ ꢨꢦꢫꢫoꢦꢊd꣇d bꢥ wꢧꢂ꣇ꢫꢈ Th꣇ d꣇꣇ꢌ chꢧꢊꢊ꣇ꢪ ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢂodꢧꢥ ꢨ꣇ꢌꢧrꢧꢂ꣇ꢨ
Soꢦꢂh꣊Eꢧꢨꢂ Aꢨꢀꢧ ꢵꢫom ꢂh꣇ ꢊorꢂhꢓw꣇ꢨꢂ coꢧꢨꢂ oꢵ Aꢦꢨꢂrꢧꢃiꢧ ꢊꢧrrow꣇d
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ꢂhꢧꢊ h꣇rbꢀvoꢫ꣇ꢨꢈ
Wh꣇ꢊ ꢂh꣇ ꢃꢧꢨꢂ ic꣇ ꢧg꣇ ꣇ꢊd꣇d ꢨom꣇ ꢃ0ꢄ000 ꢥ꣇ꢧrꢨ ꢧgo꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢂh꣇
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9cꢧꢊꢊoꢂ be ꢁꢴꢪed oꢴꢕꢈ ꢯꢴꢁꢂheꢁmoꢁe꣈ ꢧ moꢴꢊꢕiꢊg bodꢥ oꢎ eꢋideꢊce
ꢨꢴggeꢨꢂꢨ ꢧ ꢁꢧpid occꢴpꢧꢕioꢊ oꢎ ꣚ꢴꢨꢕꢁꢧꢪiꢧ꣈ wiꢕh hꢴmꢧꢊ hꢧbiꢕꢧꢕioꢊ exꢕeꢊdiꢊg ꢎꢁom ꢕhe ꢃꢴꢨh ꢕꢁopicꢨ oꢎ ꢂhe ꢊoꢁꢂh ꢕo ꢕhe icꢥ ꢁigoꢴꢁꢨ oꢎ ꢂhe
ꢨoꢴꢕh꣈ ꢂhe ꢁich coꢧꢨꢂꢧꢪ wꢧꢕeꢁꢃꢧꢊdꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢂhe hꢧꢁꢨh iꢊꢕeꢁioꢁ꣛ Wheꢊeꢋeꢁ
ꢕhe ꣎ꢁꢨꢕ ꢎooꢂpꢁiꢊꢂ ꢎeꢪꢃ oꢊ ꣚ꢴꢨꢂꢁꢧꢃiꢧꢊ ꢨoiꢪ꣈ iꢂ mꢧꢁked ꢧ ꢊew ꢧchieꢋe꣜ meꢊꢕ bꢥ Hꢁmꢁ ꢋapienꢋ - mꢧꢁiꢂime migꢁꢧꢕioꢊ oꢴꢂ oꢎ ꢕhe ꣚ꢎꢁicꢧꢊ꣝
Eꢴꢁopeꢧꢊꢓ꣚ꢨiꢧꢊ ꢪꢧꢊdmꢧꢨꢨ iꢊꢕo ꢧ ꢊew ꢪꢧꢊdꢈ
Thꢉ tꢊuth iꢋ, of couꢊꢋꢉ, that ꢂy own pꢉoplꢉ, thꢉ Riꢊatjungꢆꢌ aꢊꢉ dꢉꢋcꢉndꢉd fꢊoꢂ thꢉ gꢊꢉat Djankawa who caꢂꢉ fꢊoꢂ thꢉ iꢋland of Baꢊalku, faꢊ acꢊoꢋꢋ thꢉ ꢋꢉaꢇ Ouꢊ ꢋpiꢊitꢋ ꢊꢉtuꢊn to Baꢊalku whꢉn wꢉ diꢉ. Djankawa caꢂꢉ in hꢆꢋ canoꢉ with hiꢋ two ꢋiꢋtꢉꢊꢋ, following thꢉ ꢂoꢊnꢆng ꢋtaꢊ which guidꢉd thꢉꢂ to thꢉ ꢋhoꢊꢉꢋ of Yꢉlangbaꢊa on thꢉ ꢉaꢋtꢉꢊn coaꢋt of Aꢊnhꢉꢂ Land.
Thꢉy walkꢉd faꢊ acꢊoꢋꢋ thꢉ countꢊy following thꢉ ꢊain cloudꢋ. Whꢉn thꢉy wantꢉd watꢉꢊ thꢉy plungꢉd thꢉiꢊ digging ꢋtꢆck into thꢉ gꢊound and fꢊꢉꢋh watꢉꢊ followꢉd. Fꢊoꢂ thꢉꢂ wꢉ lꢉaꢊnt thꢉ naꢂꢉꢋ of all thꢉ cꢊꢉatuꢊꢉꢋ on thꢉ land and thꢉy taught uꢋ all ouꢊ Law.
ꢜhe Djꢧꢊkꢧwꢧ ꢨꢂoꢁꢥ ꢂoꢪd bꢥ Wꢧꢊdjꢴk Mꢧꢁikꢧ iꢨ oꢊꢃꢥ oꢊe oꢎ mꢧꢊꢥ
꣚boꢁigiꢊꢧꢃ ꢨꢂoꢁieꢨ꣞ Oꢂheꢁꢨ ꢕeꢃꢪ oꢎ diꢎꢎeꢁeꢊꢂ oꢁigiꢊꢨ꣈ oꢎ ꢧꢊceꢨꢕoꢁꢨ com꣝ iꢊg ꢎꢁom ꢂhe ꢪꢧꢊd oꢁ ꢎꢁom ꢂhe ꢨkꢥ꣈ ꢧꢊd oꢎ ꢂhe mꢴꢂꢧbi꣟iꢂꢥ oꢎ hꢴmꢧꢊꢨ wiꢂh oꢂheꢁ ꢪiꢎe ꢎoꢁmꢨꢈ ꢜhiꢨ ꢨꢂoꢁꢥ iꢨ oꢎ oꢁigiꢊꢨ ꢂhꢧꢕ begiꢊ wiꢂh ꢧ joꢴꢁ꣜
ꢊeꢥ꣈ oꢎ ꢕhe ꢨigꢊꢨ ꢕhꢧꢂ ꢪed ꢕhe ꢧꢊceꢨꢕoꢁꢨ ꢕo ꢂheiꢁ deꢨꢂiꢊꢧꢂioꢊ꣈ ꢧꢊd oꢎ
ꢂhe boꢴꢊꢂꢥ oꢎ ꢕhe ꢃꢧꢊd ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢨꢴꢨꢂꢧiꢊed ꢂhemꢈ
Sꢴch cꢁeꢧꢕioꢊ ꢨꢕoꢁieꢨ ꢧꢁe ꢂo be ꢎoꢴꢊd ꢎoꢁ oꢂheꢁ peopꢃeꢨ꣈ ꢧꢨ wiꢕh ꢂhe bookꢨ oꢎ Geꢊeꢨiꢨ ꢧꢊd Exodꢴꢨ iꢊ ꢕhe Oꢪd ꢜeꢨꢕꢧmeꢊꢂ꣈ bꢴꢂ ꢂheꢥ beꢧꢁ
ꢃighꢂꢃꢥ oꢊ ꢕhe coꢊꢨcioꢴꢨꢊeꢨꢨ oꢎ ꢕhoꢨe who ꢨꢂiꢪꢪ ꢁeꢧd ꢂhemꢈ ꣚ꢊceꢨꢂꢁꢧꢃ eꢋeꢊꢕꢨ꣈ ꢧꢨ ꢁecoꢁded iꢊ ꢨꢕoꢁieꢨ꣈ ꢨoꢊgꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢁiꢂꢴꢧꢪꢨ꣈ hꢧꢋe ꢧ pꢧꢁꢂicꢴ꣜
ꢃꢧꢁ ꢨigꢊi꣠cꢧꢊce iꢊ ꣚boꢁigiꢊꢧꢪ ꢪiꢋeꢨ꣈ ꢎoꢁ ꢕheꢥ expꢁeꢨꢨ ꢧ pꢧꢁꢂicꢴꢃꢧꢁꢪꢥ cꢃoꢨe ꢁeꢃꢧꢂioꢊꢨhip ꢕo ꢂhe ꢪꢧꢊdꢈ ꢜhe eꢋeꢊꢕꢨ ꢂhꢧꢕ occꢴꢁꢁed dꢴꢁiꢊg ꢂhe
Dꢁeꢧmꢂime oꢁ ꢂhe Dꢁeꢧmiꢊg - boꢂh Eꢊgꢃiꢨh ꢕeꢁmꢨ ꢧꢁe ꢴꢨed ꢧꢨ iꢊex꣜
ꢧcꢂ ꢕꢁꢧꢊꢨꢃꢧꢂioꢊꢨ oꢎ ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢴꢨed bꢥ ꢂhe ꣚ꢁꢁeꢁꢊꢕe peopꢪe oꢎ Ceꢊꢕꢁꢧꢪ ꣚ꢴꢨ꣜
ꢕꢁꢧꢪiꢧ꣈ aꢈtyeꢀꢀe cꢁeꢧꢂed ꢕhe hiꢃꢃꢨ ꢧꢊd cꢁeekꢨ꣈ pꢃꢧꢊꢂꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢧꢊimꢧꢪꢨ꣈
ꢧꢊd impꢁiꢊꢂed ꢂheiꢁ ꢨpiꢁiꢕ oꢊ ꢂhe pꢪꢧce꣛
ꢜhe pꢁeꢨeꢁꢋꢧꢕioꢊ ꢧꢊd pꢁꢧcꢂ꣡ce oꢎ ꢂhiꢨ kꢊowꢪedge ꢂhꢴꢨ ꢧꢎ꣠꣢mꢨ ꢂhe cꢴꢨꢂodiꢧꢊꢨhip oꢎ ꢂhe ꢪꢧꢊdꢈ Heꢁe iꢨ how ꢧ Noꢁꢕheꢁꢊ ꢜeꢁꢁiꢕoꢁꢥ mꢧꢊ꣈
Pꢧddꢥ Jꢧpꢧꢪjꢧꢁꢁi Sꢕewꢧꢁꢂ꣈ expꢃꢧiꢊꢨ iꢕꢨ impoꢁꢕꢧꢊce꣣
My fathꢉꢊ'ꢋ gꢊandfathꢉꢊ taught ꢂꢉ thꢉ firꢋtꢍ and aftꢉꢊ a whilꢉ ꢂy fathꢉꢊ taught ꢂꢉ thꢉ ꢋaꢂꢉ way aꢋ hiꢋ fathꢉꢊ told jukuꢊꢊpa [Dꢊꢉaꢂing), and thꢉn
ꢂy fathꢉꢊ iꢋ tꢉlling thꢉ ꢋaꢂꢉ ꢋtoꢊy about what hꢆꢋ fathꢉꢊ told hiꢂ, and now ꢗ꣤
A ꢅꢁnꢆiꢋe Hiꢋtꢁꢀy ꢁfAꢇstꢀaꢈia hꢉꢎꢋ tꢉaching mꢉ how to livꢉ on thꢉ ꢋamꢉ ꢏind of juꢏurrpa and follow thꢉ way what my grandfathꢉr didꢐ and thꢉn tꢉach what my fathꢉr didꢐ and thꢉn I'm going to tꢉach my grandchiꢃdrꢉn thꢉ ꢋamꢉ way aꢋ my fathꢉr taught mꢉꢑ
Whꢉn my fathꢉr waꢋ alivꢉ thiꢋ iꢋ what hꢉ taught mꢉꢒ Hꢉ had taught mꢉ traditional wayꢋ liꢏꢉ traditional dꢉꢋignꢋ in body or hꢉad of ꢏangaroo
Drꢉaming (that'ꢋ what wꢉ calꢃ marlu Drꢉamingꢓ and ꢉaglꢉ Drꢉamingꢒ Hꢉ taught mꢉ how to ꢋing ꢋong for thꢉ big cꢉrꢉmoniꢉꢋ. Pꢉopꢃꢉwho arꢉ rꢉꢃatꢉd to uꢋ in a cloꢋꢉ familyꢐ thꢉy havꢉ to havꢉ thꢉ ꢋamꢉ ꢋort of ꢔuꢏurrpa Drꢉaming, and to ꢋing ꢋongꢋ in thꢉ ꢋamꢉ way aꢋ wꢉ do our actionꢋ liꢏꢉ dancing, and paintingꢋ on our body or ꢋhiꢉꢃdꢋ or thingꢋ, and thiꢋ iꢋ what my fathꢉr taught mꢉꢕ My Drꢉaming iꢋ thꢉ ꢏangaroo Drꢉaming, thꢉ ꢉaglꢉ Drꢉaming and budgꢉrigar Drꢉaming, ꢋo I havꢉ thrꢉꢉ ꢏindꢋ ofDrꢉaming in my juꢏurrpa and I havꢉ to hang onto itꢖ ꢗhiꢋ iꢋ what my fathꢉr taught mꢉ, and thiꢋ iꢋ what I havꢉ to tꢉach my ꢋonꢋ, and my ꢋon haꢋ to tꢉach hiꢋ ꢋonꢋ thꢉ ꢋamꢉ way aꢋ my fathꢉr taught mꢉ, and that'ꢋ way it will go on from grandparꢉntꢋ to ꢋonꢋꢐ and foꢃlow that juꢏurrpa. No-onꢉ ꢏnowꢋ whꢉn it will ꢉndꢇ
Pꢧddꢥ Jꢧpꢧꢪjꢧrꢁi Sꢂewꢧrꢂ recoꢁded ꢂhiꢨ ꢂeꢨꢂꢀmoꢊꢥ, ꢩꢥ ꢂꢧpeꢓꢁecorder,
ꢀꢊ hꢀꢨ owꢊ ꢃꢧꢊgꢴꢧge ꢀꢊ ꣥99꣥ꢈ He eꢋokeꢨ ꢂhe coꢊꢂiꢊꢴiꢂꢥ oꢎ Dꢁeꢧmꢀꢊg
ꢎrom gꢁꢧꢊdꢎꢧꢂher ꢧꢊd ꢎꢧꢂheꢁ ꢂo ꢨoꢊ ꢧꢊd grꢧꢊdꢨoꢊ, dowꢊ ꢂhe geꢊ­ eꢁꢧꢂꢀoꢊꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢧcroꢨꢨ ꢂhe pꢧꢨꢨꢧge oꢎ ꢂꢀme꣦ ꢥeꢂ ꢂhe ꢀꢊꢨꢀꢨꢂeꢊce oꢊ ꢂhe oꢩꢪigꢧꢂioꢊ ꢂo preꢨeꢁꢋe ꢧꢊd ꢂrꢧꢊꢨmꢀꢂ hꢀꢨ ꢂhree jꢴkꢴꢁꢁpꢧꢨ ꢧꢂꢂeꢨꢂꢨ ꢂo
ꢂhe corroꢨꢀꢋe poꢨꢨꢀꢩꢀꢃꢀꢂieꢨ oꢎ ꢨecꢴꢪꢧꢁ chꢧꢊgeꢈ He goeꢨ oꢊ ꢂo ꢧꢋeꢁ ꢂhꢧꢂ
ꢂhe mꢧꢀꢊꢂeꢊꢧꢊce oꢎ ꢂhe Dꢁeꢧmiꢊg hꢧꢨ ꢂo ꢩe ꣀreꢧꢪꢪꢥ ꢨꢂrꢀcꢂꢇ, ꢨo ꢂhꢧꢂ hꢀꢨ ꢎꢧmꢀꢃꢥ wꢀꢪꢃ ꢊoꢂ ꣀꢃoꢨe ꢀꢂ ꢃꢀke ꢧ pꢧper, or ꢂhrow iꢂ ꢧwꢧꢥ or gꢀꢋe ꢀꢂ
ꢧwꢧꢥ ꢂo oꢂher ꢎꢧmꢀꢪieꢨꢑꢈ ꢜhe oꢋerꢪꢧꢥ oꢎ ꢊew ꢂechꢊoꢃogꢥ oꢊ cꢴꢨꢂom­
ꢧꢁꢥ kꢊowꢪedge heꢀghꢂeꢊꢨ ꢂhe coꢊꢂrꢧꢨꢂ ꢩeꢂweeꢊ ꢧ ꢩꢀꢊdiꢊg ꢂrꢧdꢀꢂioꢊ
ꢧꢊd ꢧ ꢎrꢧgꢀꢃe, dꢀꢨpoꢨꢧꢩꢪe pꢧꢨꢂꢈ ꢜhe hꢀꢨꢂoꢁꢥ ꢂhꢧꢂ iꢨ recoꢁded oꢊ pꢧpeꢁ,
ꢃꢀke oꢂheꢁ docꢴmeꢊꢂꢨ ꢨꢴch ꢧꢨ ꢃꢧꢊd ꢂꢀꢂꢃeꢨ, cꢧꢊ ꢩe ꢪoꢨꢂ oꢁ ꢨꢴrreꢊdered
ꢂo oꢂheꢁꢨꢈ ꢜhe hiꢨꢂorꢥ ꢂhꢧꢂ iꢨ ꢪiꢋed ꢧꢊd ꢁeꢊewed wꢀꢂhiꢊ ꢂhe ꢂieꢨ oꢎ
ꢂhe ꢎꢧmiꢪꢥ ꢁemꢧꢀꢊꢨ ꢥoꢴr owꢊꢈ
ꢜhe ꣚ꢩorigꢀꢊꢧꢃ peopꢪe who occꢴpꢀed Sꢧhꢴꢪ eꢊcoꢴꢊꢂered ꢁꢧdꢀcꢧꢪꢃꢥ diꢟ꣧ereꢊꢂ coꢊdiꢂioꢊꢨ ꢎrom ꢂhoꢨe ꢂheꢥ ꢪeꢎꢂ iꢊ Sꢴꢊdꢧꢈ ꢜhe ꢧꢩꢨeꢊce oꢎ predꢧꢂoꢁꢨ, ꢎoꢁ ꢂhere were ꢎew cꢧrꢊiꢋoroꢴꢨ compeꢂiꢂorꢨ here, gꢧꢋe
ꢂhem ꢧꢊ eꢊormoꢴꢨ iꢊiꢂiꢧꢪ ꢧdꢋꢧꢊꢂꢧge꣨ ꢜheꢥ ꢨpꢁeꢧd oꢋeꢁ ꢧꢊ exꢂꢁꢧoꢁ­ dꢀꢊꢧꢁꢥ rꢧꢊge oꢎ ecoꢪogꢀeꢨ ꣩ ꢂropicꢧꢃ ꢊorꢂherꢊ ꢎoreꢨꢂꢨ, ꢜꢧꢨmꢧꢊꢀꢧꢊ gꢃꢧcꢀꢧꢂed highꢃꢧꢊdꢨ, ꢂhe dꢁꢥ ꢀꢊꢂeꢁior ꣩ ꢧꢊd hꢧd ꢂo ꢧdjꢴꢨꢂ ꢂo mꢧjor cꢃꢀꢐ mꢧꢂꢀc chꢧꢊgeꢨꢠ Oꢋer hꢴꢊdredꢨ o꣧ geꢊeꢁꢧꢂꢀoꢊꢨ ꢂheꢥ ꢧdꢧpꢂed ꢂo ꢂheꢨe dꢀ꣧ꢎeꢁeꢊꢂ, chꢧꢊgꢀꢊg eꢊꢋiroꢊmeꢊꢂꢨ, ꢧꢊd ꢀꢊ ꢂꢴꢁꢊ ꢂheꢥ ꢪeꢧrꢊed how ꢂo mꢧꢊꢀpꢴꢪꢧꢂe ꢂhem ꢂo ꢧꢴgmeꢊꢂ ꢂhe ꢎood ꢨꢴppꢪꢥꢈ ꣚ꢨ hꢴꢊꢂerꢓgꢧꢂheꢁeꢁꢨ, Beginnings
ꢗ ꣪
ꢂheꢥ ꢃꢀꢋed oꢎꢎ ꢂhe ꢃꢧꢊd wiꢕh ꢧ ꢌꢁeciꢨe ꢧꢊd ꢀꢊꢂimꢧꢂe kꢊowꢃedge oꢎ iꢂꢨ
ꢁeꢨoꢦꢁceꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢨeꢧꢨoꢊꢧꢃ ꢌꢧꢂꢂeꢁꢊꢨꢉ Theꢥ oꢁgꢧꢊꢀꢨed ꢨocꢀꢧꢃꢪꢥ ꢀꢊ exꢂeꢊded
ꢎꢧmꢀꢃꢀeꢨ꣈ wiꢂh ꢨꢌecꢀ꣎c ꢁighꢂꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢨꢌecꢀ꣎c ꢁeꢨꢌoꢊꢨibꢀꢃꢀꢂieꢨ ꢎoꢁ ꢨꢌecꢀ꣎c coꢦꢊꢂꢁꢥ꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢁꢦꢃeꢨ ꢂo ꢁegꢦꢪꢧꢕe ꢂheiꢁ ꢀꢊꢂeꢁꢧcꢂioꢊ wꢀꢂh oꢂheꢁꢨ꣨
Hꢦꢊꢂeꢁ꣫gꢧꢂheꢁeꢁ iꢨ boꢂh ꢧ ꢂechꢊicꢧꢃ ꢕeꢁm ꢧꢊd ꢨomeꢕhiꢊg moꢁe꣛ ꣬ꢂ
ꢁeꢎeꢁꢨ ꢂo ꢧ mode oꢎ mꢧꢕeꢁꢀꢧꢃ ꢪiꢎe; ꢀꢂ ꢨigꢊꢀ꣎eꢨ ꢧ ꢨꢕꢧge ꢀꢊ hꢦmꢧꢊ hiꢨꢂoꢁꢥ꣛
ꢯoꢁꢂꢥ ꢂhoꢦꢨꢧꢊd ꢥeꢧꢁꢨ ꢧgo꣈ wheꢊ ꣚ꢦꢨꢂꢁꢧꢃꢀꢧ wꢧꢨ ꢌoꢌꢦꢃꢧꢂed bꢥ hꢦꢊꢂeꢁ­ gꢧꢂheꢁeꢁꢨ꣈ eꢋeꢁꢥ hꢦmꢧꢊ ꢨocꢀeꢂꢥ iꢊ eꢋeꢁꢥ ꢌꢧꢁꢕ oꢎ ꢕhe woꢁꢪd ꢌꢁꢧc­
ꢕꢀꢨed hꢦꢊꢂeꢁꢓgꢧꢂheꢁꢀꢊg꣛ Sꢦbꢨeqꢦeꢊꢂꢪꢥ꣈ ꢧgꢁicꢦꢃꢕꢦꢁe ꢁeꢌꢪꢧced hꢦꢊꢂeꢁ­ gꢧꢂheꢁꢀꢊg iꢊ Eꢦꢁoꢌe꣈ mꢦch oꢎ ꣚ꢨiꢧ꣈ ꣚ꢎꢁicꢧ꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢂhe ꣚meꢁicꢧꢨ꣛ ꣚gꢁi­ cꢦꢃꢕꢦꢁe eꢊꢧbꢃed gꢁeꢧꢂeꢁ ꢌꢁodꢦcꢂiꢋꢀꢂꢥ꣈ ꢨꢦꢨꢂꢧꢀꢊed hꢀgheꢁ ꢌoꢌꢦꢃꢧꢕꢀoꢊ deꢊꢨꢀꢂꢀeꢨ꣈ gꢧꢋe ꢁꢀꢨe ꢂo ꢂowꢊꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢂhe ꢧmeꢊiꢂieꢨ oꢎ ꢦꢁbꢧꢊ ꣟ꢀꢎeꢠ ꣚ꢨ ꢀꢂ becꢧme ꢌoꢨꢨꢀbꢃe ꢂo ꢌꢁodꢦce moꢁe ꢕhꢧꢊ ꢧ ꢨꢦbꢨiꢨꢂeꢊce꣈ weꢧꢪꢂh coꢦꢃd be ꢧccꢦmꢦꢪꢧꢂed ꢧꢊd ꢧꢃꢪow ꢧ dꢀꢋꢀꢨioꢊ oꢎ ꢃꢧboꢦꢁ꣛ Sꢦch ꢨꢌeciꢧꢪiꢨꢧꢐ
ꢕioꢊ ꢎoꢨꢂeꢁed ꢕechꢊoꢪogꢀcꢧꢃ imꢌꢁoꢋemeꢊꢂ꣈ commeꢁce ꢧꢊd ꢀꢊdꢦꢨꢂꢁꢥ; iꢂ ꢨꢦꢌꢌoꢁꢂed ꢧꢁmieꢨ꣈ ꢁꢦꢃeꢁꢨ ꢧꢊd bꢦꢁeꢧꢦcꢁꢧꢂꢨ who coꢦꢪd coꢊꢂꢁoꢃ ꢪꢧꢁge
ꢌoꢃꢀꢂicꢧꢪ ꢦꢊiꢕꢨ wiꢕh ꢧ coꢁꢁeꢨꢌoꢊdiꢊg exꢕeꢊꢨioꢊ oꢎ cꢧꢌꢧciꢂꢥ꣛
Wheꢊ Bꢁꢀꢂiꢨh ꢧꢊd oꢕheꢁ Eꢦꢁoꢌeꢧꢊ ꢀꢊꢋeꢨꢂꢀgꢧꢂoꢁꢨ ꣎ꢁꢨꢕ eꢊcoꢦꢊꢕeꢁed
ꢂhe ꣚ꢦꢨꢕꢁꢧꢃꢀꢧꢊ ꣚boꢁꢀgꢀꢊeꢨ꣈ ꢂheꢥ ꣎ꢂꢂed ꢂhem iꢊꢕo ꢧ ꢪꢧddeꢁ oꢎ hꢦmꢧꢊ
ꢌꢁogꢁeꢨꢨ oꢊ which ꢂhe hꢦꢊꢂeꢁꢓgꢧꢂheꢁeꢁ ꢨocꢀeꢂꢥ occꢦꢌied ꢂhe ꢃoweꢨꢂ
ꢁꢦꢊg꣛ The ꢊꢀꢊeꢕeeꢊꢂh꣭ceꢊꢂꢦꢁꢥ hꢀꢨꢂoꢁꢀꢧꢊ Jꢧmeꢨ Boꢊwꢀck꣈ who wꢁoꢂe exꢂeꢊꢨꢀꢋeꢪꢥ oꢎ ꣚boꢁꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ hꢀꢨꢂoꢁꢥ꣈ emꢌhꢧꢨꢀꢨed ꢂhe ꣚ꢁcꢧdꢀꢧꢊ ꢋꢀꢁꢕꢦe oꢎ ꢂheꢀꢁ wꢧꢥ oꢎ ꢪꢀꢎe bꢦꢂ ꢧꢪwꢧꢥꢨ ꢧꢨꢨꢦmed ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢂheꢥ weꢁe doomed ꢂo
ꢥꢀeꢪd ꢕo Eꢦꢁoꢌeꢧꢊ wꢧꢥꢨꢔ ꣮oꢁ him꣈ ꢧꢨ ꢎoꢁ moꢨꢕ oꢎ hiꢨ coꢊꢂemꢌoꢁꢧꢁieꢨ꣈
ꢕhe ꢀꢊdigeꢊoꢦꢨ ꢌeoꢌꢪe ꢁeꢌꢁeꢨeꢊꢕed ꢧ ꢌꢁꢀmꢀꢂiꢋe ꢧꢊꢂiqꢦꢀꢂꢥ ꢂhꢧꢕ ꢃꢧcked
ꢕhe cꢧꢌꢧcꢀꢂꢥ ꢕo chꢧꢊgeꢹ ꢧꢨ he ꢌꢦꢂ ꢀꢕ꣈ ꣀꢂheꢥ kꢊew ꢊo ꢌꢧꢨꢕ꣈ ꢕheꢥ wꢧꢊꢂed
ꢊo ꢎꢦꢂꢦꢁe꣯ꢈ
Moꢁe ꢁeceꢊꢂ ꢀꢊꢂeꢁꢌꢁeꢂꢧꢕꢀoꢊꢨ ꢨꢦggeꢨꢂ oꢂheꢁwꢀꢨe꣛ Pꢁehiꢨꢕoꢁꢀꢧꢊꢨ
(ꢂhoꢦgh ꢂhe ꢌeꢁꢨꢀꢨꢂeꢊce oꢎ ꢂhiꢨ ꢂeꢁm iꢊdꢀcꢧꢂeꢨ ꢂhꢧꢕ ꢂhe ꢊew ꢨeꢊꢨꢀ꣰ biꢪiꢕꢥ ꢀꢨ iꢊcomꢌꢪeꢂe) ꢧꢁe ꢨꢕꢁꢦck bꢥ ꢕhe ꢁemꢧꢁkꢧbꢪe ꢃoꢊgeꢋꢀꢕꢥ ꢧꢊd
ꢧdꢧꢌꢂꢧbꢀꢃꢀꢂꢥ oꢎ hꢦꢊꢂeꢁꢓgꢧꢂheꢁeꢁ ꢨocꢀeꢕꢀeꢨꢔ Demogꢁꢧꢌheꢁꢨ ꢨꢦggeꢨꢂ
ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢂheꢥ mꢧiꢊꢕꢧꢀꢊed ꢧ hꢀghꢃꢥ ꢨꢦcceꢨꢨꢎꢦꢃ eqꢦꢀꢃꢀbꢁꢀꢦm oꢎ ꢌoꢌꢦꢃꢧꢂioꢊ
ꢧꢊd ꢁeꢨoꢦꢁceꢨ꣨ Ecoꢊomiꢨꢂꢨ hꢧꢋe ꢎoꢦꢊd ꢂhꢧꢂ ꢂheꢥ ꢌꢁodꢦced ꢨꢦꢁꢌꢃꢦꢨeꢨ꣈
ꢂꢁꢧded꣈ mꢧde ꢕechꢊoꢪogicꢧꢃ ꢧdꢋꢧꢊceꢨ꣈ ꢧꢃꢪ wꢀꢂh ꢎꢧꢁ ꢪeꢨꢨ eꢎꢎoꢁꢂ ꢂhꢧꢊ
ꢧgꢁꢀcꢦꢪꢂꢦꢁꢧꢃꢀꢨꢂꢨꢈ ꣉ꢀꢊgꢦꢀꢨꢂꢨ ꢧꢁe ꢨꢕꢁꢦck bꢥ ꢂhe dꢀꢋeꢁꢨꢀꢂꢥ ꢧꢊd ꢨoꢌhꢀꢨꢕicꢧꢐ
ꢕꢀoꢊ oꢎ ꢂheiꢁ ꢃꢧꢊgꢦꢧgeꢨ꣛ ꣚ꢊꢂhꢁoꢌoꢪogꢀꢨꢂꢨ diꢨceꢁꢊ comꢌꢪex ꢁeꢃꢀgioꢊꢨ
ꢕhꢧꢂ gꢦꢀded ꢨꢦch ꢌeoꢌꢃeꢑꢨ ꢃꢀꢋeꢨ ꢧꢊd moꢋemeꢊꢂꢨ꣈ eꢊcoded ecoꢃogꢀcꢧꢪ wꢀꢨdom꣈ ꢧꢨꢨꢦꢁed geꢊeꢂꢀc ꢋꢧꢁꢀeꢂꢥ ꢧꢊd mꢧꢀꢊꢂꢧiꢊed ꢨocꢀꢧꢃ coheꢨꢀoꢊ꣱

A ꢅꢁnꢆise Histꢁꢀy ꢁfAꢇstꢀaꢈia
ꢗ 2
Dhꢋrug Kꢌrꢍng·gꢋꢍ
Wꢎꢍnwꢎrung o500
Map ꢀ.3 Aboꢀigꢆnaꢃ Austraꢃia, showing location of groups
ꢘꢉntꢆonꢉd ꢆn this histoꢀyꢙ (Dꢒ R Horton ꢚꢉdꢒꢓꢍ The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia, Canbꢉꢀra: Austraꢃian
Institutꢉ of Aboꢀiginal and Toꢀrꢉs Stꢀait Isꢃandꢉꢀ Studiꢉs and Auslig ꢛ 994ꢓꢜ Thꢉ ꢉditoꢀ warns that ꢝthis ꢘap indicatꢉs only thꢉ gꢉnꢉral ꢃocation of largꢉr groupings of pꢉopꢃꢉ which ꢘay
ꢆncꢃudꢉ sꢘaꢃlꢉr groups such as clans, diaꢃꢉcts or individuaꢃ
ꢃanguagꢉs ꢆn a gꢀoupꢙ Boundariꢉs aꢀꢉ not intꢉndꢉd to bꢉ
ꢉxactꢇ For ꢘorꢉ infoꢀꢘation about thꢉ gꢀoups of pꢉoplꢉ in a particulaꢀ ꢀꢉgꢆon contact thꢉ ꢀꢉlꢉvant land councilsꢞ Thꢆs ꢘap is not suitabꢃꢉ for usꢉ in nativꢉ tꢆtlꢉ and othꢉr land claiꢘsꢒꢟ
Wꢀꢂh ꢂheꢀꢁ egꢧꢪꢀꢂꢧꢁꢀꢧꢊ ꢨocꢀꢧꢪ ꢧꢊd ꢌoꢪꢀꢂꢀcꢧꣲꢂꢁꢴcꢂꢴꢁe꣈ ꢎꢧꢁꣳ꣌ꢪꢴꢊg ꢂꢁꢧd­
ꢀꢊg ꢊeꢂwoꢁkꢨ ꢧꢊd ꢧboꢋe ꢧꢪꢪ ꢂheꢀꢁ ꢁꢀch ꢨꢌꢀꢁꢀꢂꢴꢧꢪ ꢧꢊd cꢴꢪꢂꢴꢁꢧꢪ ꢪꢀꢎe꣈ ꢂhe ceꢪebꢁꢧꢂed ꢯꣴeꢊch ꢧꢊꢂhꢁoꢌoꢪogꢀꢨꢂ Cꢪꢧꢴde ꣉ꣵꢋꢀꢓSꢂꢁꢧꢴꢨꢨ deꢨcꢁꢀbed ꢂhe
꣚ꢴꢨꢂꢁꢧꢪꢀꢧꢊ ꣚boꢁꢀgꢀꢊeꢨ ꢧꢨ ꣀꢀꢊꢂeꢪꢪecꢂꢴꢧꢪ ꢧꢁꢀꢨꢂocꢁꢧꢂꢨꢇꢈ
ꢜheꢨe ꢁeꢧꢌꢌꣴꢧꢀꢨꢧꢪꢨ oꢋeꢁꢂꢴꢁꢊ ꢂhe ꢁꢀgꢀd hꢀeꢁꢧꢁchꢥ oꢎ hꢀꢨꢂoꢁꢀcꢧꢪ
ꢌꢁogꢁeꢨꢨ ꢂhꣴoꢴgh ꢨeqꢴeꢊꢂꢀꢧꢪ ꢨꢂꢧgeꢨ꣈ ꢎꢁom ꢌꢁꢀmꢀꢂꢀꢋe ꢂo modeꢁꢊ꣈ ꢧꢊd eꢊꢧbꢪe ꢴꢨ ꢂo ꢧꢌꢌꢁecꢀꢧꢂe ꢂhe ꢨoꢌhꢀꢨꢂꢀcꢧꢂꢀoꢊ oꢎ ꢧ cꢀꢋꢀꢪꢀꢨꢧꢂꢀoꢊ oꢎ gꢁeꢧꢂeꣴ
ꢪoꢊgeꢋꢀꢂꢥ ꢂhꢧꢊ ꢧꢊꢥ oꢂheꢁ ꢀꢊ woꢁꢪd hꢀꢨꢂoꢁꢥꢈ ꣶeꢂ ꢂheꢁe ꢁemꢧꢀꢊꢨ ꢂhe chꢧꢪꢪeꢊge ꢂo exꢌꢪꢧꢀꢊ ꢂhe ꢧꢌꢌꢧꢁeꢊꢂ ꢀꢊcꢧꢌꢧcꢀꢂꢥ oꢎ ꢂhe ꣚boꣴꢀgꢀꢊꢧꢪ Beginnings
꣚ꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢃꢀꢧꢊꢨ ꢕo wꢀꢕhꢨꢕꢧꢊd ꢕhe ꢀꢊꢋꢧꢨioꢊ oꢎ ꢌꢍ88. ꢯor ꢧꢃꢪ ꢀꢕꢨ ꢧdꢋꢧꢊ­
ꢕꢧgeꢨ, ꢧꢊd ꢀꢕꢨ cꢧpꢧcꢀꢕꢥ ꢕo meeꢕ chꢧꢪꢪeꢊgeꢨ oꢋer more ꢕhꢧꢊ ꢎorꢕꢥ mꢀꢪ­
ꢃeꢊꢊiꢧ, ꢕhe iꢊdꢀgeꢊoꢦꢨ popꢦꢃꢧꢕꢀoꢊ coꢦꢃd ꢊoꢕ mꢧꢀꢊꢕꢧiꢊ ꢨoꢋeꢁeꢀgꢊꢕꢥ wheꢊ coꢊꢎroꢊꢕed bꢥ Bꢁꢀꢕiꢨh ꢨeꢕꢕꢃeꢁꢨꢔ Iꢕ wꢧꢨ bꢥ ꢊo meꢧꢊꢨ ꢧꢃoꢊe ꢀꢊ
ꢕhꢀꢨ ꢀꢊcꢧpꢧcꢀꢕꢥ, oꢎ coꢦꢁꢨeꢹ oꢕheꢁ hꢦꢊꢕerꢓgꢧꢕheꢁeꢁ ꢨocieꢕꢀeꢨ, ꢧꢨ weꢃꢪ ꢧꢨ
ꢧgꢁicꢦꢃꢕꢦrꢧꢪ oꢊeꢨ ꢧꢊd eꢋeꢊ ꢕhoꢨe wiꢕh more exꢕeꢊꢨꢀꢋe commeꢁꢺ ciꢧꢃ iꢊꢨꢕꢀꢕꢦꢕꢀoꢊꢨ, ꢨꢦccꢦmbed ꢕo Eꢦropeꢧꢊ coꢊꣷꢦeꢨꢕ ꢀꢊ ꢕhe ꢨeꢋeꢊ­
ꢕeeꢊꢕh, eighꢕeeꢊꢕh ꢧꢊd ꢊiꢊeꢕeeꢊꢕh ceꢊꢕꢦrꢀeꢨꢔ The ꣚ꢦꢨꢕꢁꢧꢃꢀꢧꢊ experꢀ­ eꢊce poiꢊꢕꢨ ꢦp ꢕhe pꢧꢁꢕicꢦꢪꢧr ꢋꢦꢃꢊeꢁꢧbꢀꢃꢀꢕꢥ oꢎ ꢧꢊ ꢀꢨoꢪꢧꢕed ciꢋꢀꢃiꢨꢧꢕꢀoꢊ
ꢕo exꢕerꢊꢧꢪ ꢧggreꢨꢨꢀoꢊꢈ
The ꣚borigiꢊeꢨ were ꢊoꢕ whoꢃꢪꢥ cꢦꢕ oꢎꢎ ꢎꢁom exꢕeꢁꢊꢧꢃ coꢊꢕꢧcꢕꢾ
The ꢊꢧꢕiꢋe dog, ꢕhe diꢊgo, reꢧched ꣚ꢦꢨꢕꢁꢧꢪꢀꢧ ꢨome 4000 ꢥeꢧrꢨ ꢧgo꣸ ꢀꢕ wꢧꢨ ꢕhe ꣎rꢨꢕ ꢧꢊd oꢊꢪꢥ domeꢨꢕꢀcꢧꢕed ꢧꢊimꢧꢪꢔ Tꢁꢧdeꢁꢨ ꢎꢁom Soꢦꢕh꣭Eꢧꢨꢕ
꣚ꢨꢀꢧ were ꢋꢀꢨꢀꢕꢀꢊg ꢕhe ꢊorꢕheꢁꢊ coꢧꢨꢕ beꢎoꢁe Eꢦropeꢧꢊ ꢨeꢕꢕꢃemeꢊꢕ, briꢊgiꢊg poꢕꢕerꢥ, cꢪoꢕh ꢧꢊd meꢕꢧꢃ ꢕooꢪꢨꢈ Sꢦch exꢕeꢁꢊꢧꢪ iꢊflꢦeꢊceꢨ weꢁe ꢎꢧr ꢃeꢨꢨ ꢨigꢊi꣎cꢧꢊꢕ, howeꢋer, ꢕhꢧꢊ iꢊꢕeꢁꢊꢧꢃ proceꢨꢨeꢨ oꢎ chꢧꢊge wꢁoꢦghꢕ bꢥ ꢕhe ꣚borꢀgiꢊeꢨ ꢕhemꢨeꢃꢋeꢨꢈ Their ꢧrriꢋꢧꢪ hꢧd ꢧꢃmoꢨꢕ cerꢕꢧiꢊꢪꢥ hꢧꢨꢕeꢊed ꢕhe exꢕiꢊcꢕioꢊ oꢎ eꢧrꢪieꢁ megꢧꢎꢧꢦꢊꢧꢔ Their ꢦꢨe oꢎ
꣎re ꢕo bꢦꢁꢊ oꢎꢎ ꢦꢊdeꢁgꢁowꢕh ꢧꢊd eꢊcoꢦꢁꢧge ꢊew pꢧꢨꢕꢦre ꢎor ꢕhe remꢧiꢊiꢊg mꢧrꢨꢦpiꢧꢃꢨ, ꢧꢨ weꢪꢪ ꢧꢨ ꢕheir ꢨꢥꢨꢕemꢧꢕꢀc hꢧrꢋeꢨꢕiꢊg oꢎ ꢨꢕꢧ­ pꢪe pꢪꢧꢊꢕꢨ, hꢧd ꢧꢃꢕeꢁed ꢕhe ꢪꢧꢊdꢨcꢧpeꢈ Theꢀꢁ ꢕechꢊoꢃogꢀcꢧꢃ ꢀꢊꢊoꢋꢧꢕꢀoꢊ
ꢧcceꢃerꢧꢕed wiꢕh ꢕhe deꢋeꢪopmeꢊꢕ oꢎ ꢊew ꢕooꢪꢨ, ꢕhe dꢀggiꢊg ꢨꢕick ꢧꢊd
ꢕhe ꢨpꢧꢕꢦꢃꢧ, ꣎ꢨhꢀꢊg ꢊeꢕ ꢧꢊd cꢧꢊoe, boomeꢁꢧꢊg ꢧꢊd woomeꢁꢧ, ꢊeꢕ
ꢧꢊd ꢨpeꢧr, hꢧꢎꢕed ꢧxe ꢧꢊd ꢨpeciꢧꢪꢀꢨed ꢨꢕoꢊe ꢀmpꢃemeꢊꢕꢨꢔ The coꢊ­
ꢨꢕrꢦcꢕioꢊ oꢎ weiꢁꢨ ꢧꢊd chꢧꢊꢊeꢃꢨ ꢕo ꢕrꢧp eeꢪꢨ ꢨꢦppoꢁꢕed popꢦꢪꢧꢕꢀoꢊꢨ oꢎ ꢨeꢋerꢧꢃ hꢦꢊdꢁed iꢊ ꢨemiꢓpermꢧꢊeꢊꢕ hoꢦꢨiꢊgꢈ
The eꢋideꢊce oꢎ ꢕhiꢨ iꢊꢋeꢊꢕꢀꢋeꢊeꢨꢨ iꢨ coꢊ꣎ꢁmed bꢥ ꢕhe ꢧbꢨeꢊce oꢎ mꢧꢊꢥ ꢨꢦch ꢀꢕemꢨ ꢎrom ꢕhe iꢨꢃꢧꢊd oꢎ Tꢧꢨmꢧꢊꢀꢧ, whꢀch wꢧꢨ ꢨepꢧrꢧꢕed
ꢎrom ꢕhe mꢧꢀꢊꢃꢧꢊd ꢨome 10ꢄ000 ꢥeꢧꢁꢨ ꢧgo, whꢀꢃe ꢕhe diꢨꢧppeꢧꢁꢧꢊce oꢎ ꣚borꢀgiꢊꢧꢃ commꢦꢊꢀꢕieꢨ oꢊ ꢕhe ꢨmꢧꢃꢪer ꢯꢃꢀꢊderꢨ ꢧꢊd ꣹ꢧꢊgꢧroo iꢨꢃꢧꢊdꢨ ꢧꢕꢕeꢨꢕꢨ ꢕo ꢕhe ꢎrꢧgiꢪiꢕꢥ oꢎ ꢁemoꢕe ꢨeꢕꢕꢪemeꢊꢕꢨꢈ The ꢀꢊꢕeꢊꢨꢀ꣎­ cꢧꢕꢀoꢊ oꢎ ꢕhe hꢦꢊꢕeꢁꣳgꢧꢕheꢁer ecoꢊomꢥ probꢧbꢪꢥ ꢨꢦpporꢕed ꢃꢧꢁgeꢁ
ꢊꢦmbeꢁꢨ - we do ꢊoꢕ kꢊow ꢕhe popꢦꢃꢧꢕioꢊ hiꢨꢕorꢥ, bꢦꢕ receꢊꢕ eꢨꢕi­ mꢧꢕeꢨ ꢨꢦggeꢨꢕ perhꢧpꢨ ꢕhꢁeeꢓꣷꢦꢧꢁꢕerꢨ oꢎ ꢧ miꢪꢃioꢊ peopꢪe ꢪiꢋed heꢁe iꢊ ꢉꢊ88ꢎ
The wꢧꢥ oꢎ ꢃꢀꢎe heꢃd ꢕhe popꢦꢪꢧꢕioꢊ ꢧꢕ ꢧ ꢃeꢋeꢪ deꢕeꢁmꢀꢊed bꢥ
ꢕhe ꢎood ꢕhꢧꢕ wꢧꢨ ꢧꢋꢧꢀꢃꢧbꢃe ꢧꢕ ꢕhe ꢕꢀmeꢨ oꢎ greꢧꢕeꢨꢕ ꢨcꢧrcꢀꢕꢥ, bꢦꢕ iꢕ wꢧꢨ ꢎꢧꢁ ꢎrom ꢧ coꢊꢨꢕꢧꢊꢕ ꢨꢕrꢦggꢃe ꢎor ꢨꢦbꢨiꢨꢕeꢊceꢈ The hꢦꢊꢕꢀꢊg oꢎ A ꢅꢁnꢆise Histꢁꢀy ꢁfAꢇstꢀaꢈia gꢧme꣈ ꣠ꢨhiꢊg꣈ ꢨꢊꢧꢁiꢊg꣈ ꢧꢊd hꢧꢁꢋeꢨꢂiꢊg oꢎ ꢎoodꢨꢂꢦꢎꢎꢨ weꢁe ꢌꢧꢁꢕ oꢎ ꢧꢊ eꢪꢧꢩoꢁꢧꢂe ꢨꢥꢨꢂem oꢎ eꢊꢋiꢁoꢊmeꢊꢂꢧꢃ mꢧꢊꢧgemeꢊꢕ꣸ ꢧꢊd ꢕhiꢨ eꢨꢨeꢊꢕiꢧꢃ
ꢧcꢕiꢋiꢕꢥ wꢧꢨ ꢦꢊdeꢁꢂꢧkeꢊ ꢧꢃoꢊg wiꢂh oꢂheꢁ ꢧcꢕiꢋiꢂieꢨ ꢕo ꢌꢁoꢋide ꢨheꢃꢂeꢁ
ꢧꢊd cꢃoꢕhiꢊg꣈ ꢁeꢊew eqꢴiꢌmeꢊꢕ꣈ coꢊdꢦcꢂ ꢂꢁꢧde ꢧꢊd commꢦꢊicꢧꢂioꢊ꣈ mꢧiꢊꢂꢧiꢊ ꢪꢧw ꢧꢊd oꢁdeꢁ꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢌꢁꢧcꢂiꢨe ceꢁemoꢊꢥ ꢧꢊd ꢁiꢂꢴꢧꢃꢈ ꢜhe
꣚ꢩoꢁigiꢊꢧꢪ wꢧꢥ oꢎ ꢃiꢎe iꢨ ꢨeeꢊ ꢧꢨ ꢧꢎꢎoꢁdiꢊg ꢧ ꢃꢧꢁge ꢧmoꢦꢊꢕ oꢎ ꢪeiꢨꢴꢁe
ꢕime ꢎoꢁ cꢴꢃꢕꢦꢁꢧꢃ ꢧꢊd ꢧꢁꢂiꢨꢕic ꢌꢴꢁꢨꢦiꢕꢨ꣈ ꢩꢴꢕ ꢨꢦch ꢧ diꢨꢂiꢊcꢂioꢊ ꢩeꢕweeꢊ woꢁk ꢧꢊd ꢃeiꢨꢦꢁe ꢨeꢌꢧꢁꢧꢕeꢨ domꢧiꢊꢨ oꢎ ꢃiꢎe ꢕhꢧꢂ weꢁe coꢊjoiꢊedꢈ
Eqꢴꢧꢪꢃꢥ꣈ ꢧꢁꢕiꢨꢕic exꢌꢁeꢨꢨioꢊ eꢊꢂeꢁed iꢊꢕo ꢂhe moꢨꢕ ceꢊꢕꢁꢧꢪ ꢎoꢁmꢨ oꢎ mꢧꢂeꢁiꢧꢃ ꢌꢁꢧcꢕice꣈ ꢧꢊd ꣚ꢩoꢁigiꢊꢧꢃ ꢁeꢃigioꢊ eꢊcomꢌꢧꢨꢨed ꢧꢪꢃ ꢧꢨꢌecꢂꢨ oꢎ ꢪiꢎe꣺ Iꢕ iꢨ ꢂhiꢨ oꢁgꢧꢊic chꢧꢁꢧcꢂeꢁ oꢎ ꢩeꢪieꢎ ꢧꢊd ꢨociꢧꢃ ꢌꢁꢧcꢂice ꢂhꢧꢂ
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ꢨꢧꢂꢴꢁꢧꢂed ꢂheiꢁ eꢋeꢁꢥ ꢧcꢂioꢊ wiꢂh ꢨꢌiꢁiꢂꢴꢧꢪ ꢨigꢊi꣎cꢧꢊceꢈ
Did ꢕhe deeꢌ ꢁeꢨꢌecꢂ ꢎoꢁ ꢂꢁꢧdiꢕioꢊ ꢨꢂi꣌꣼e moꢁe ꢁꢧdicꢧꢃ ꢂꢁꢧꢊꢨꢎoꢁmꢧꢺ
ꢂioꢊꢨ ꢂhꢧꢕ mighꢕ hꢧꢋe ꢧꢃꢪowed ꢂhe ꣚ꢩoꢁigiꢊꢧꢪ ꢌeoꢌꢪe ꢕo ꢁeꢨiꢨꢕ ꢕhe iꢊꢋꢧꢨioꢊ oꢎ ꢰꣽ88? ꢜhe ꢌꢧꢨꢨꢧge oꢎ ꢕime ꢧꢊd ꢕemꢌoꢁꢧꢃ chꢧꢊge꣈ ꢨo ceꢊꢕꢁꢧꢪ iꢊ Weꢨꢕeꢁꢊ ꢂhoꢦghꢕ꣈ do ꢊoꢕ hꢧꢋe ꢂhꢧꢕ ꢨꢕꢧꢕꢦꢨ iꢊ ꣚ꢩoꢁigiꢊꢧꢃ oꢊꢂoꢪogꢥꣾ Iꢎ ꢂhe ꢃꢧꢊd iꢨ ꢌꢁimꢧꢁꢥ ꢧꢊd ꢌꢪꢧce immꢦꢕꢧꢩꢪe꣈ ꢂheꢊ hiꢨꢂoꢁꢥ cꢧꢊꢊoꢕ hꢧꢋe ꢂhe ꢨꢧme deꢂeꢁmiꢊꢧꢂe ꢁoꢪeꣾ ꢯoꢁ ꢂhe Eꢴꢁoꢌeꢧꢊꢨ who
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ꢕhe ꢎooꢂꢨꢂeꢌꢨ oꢎ ꢕhoꢨe who hꢧd goꢊe ꢩeꢎoꢁe꣈ chꢧꢊge coꢴꢪd oꢊꢃꢥ ꢩe iꢊcꢁemeꢊꢂꢧꢃꢈ
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ꢩꢥ iꢊꢂeꢁmꢧꢁꢁiꢧge꣈ ꢩeꢪieꢎ ꢧꢊd ꢪꢧꢊgꢦꢧge iꢊꢂo ꢪꢧꢁgeꢁ ꢕeꢁꢁiꢂoꢁiꢧꢪ gꢁoꢦꢌꢨꢈ
Eꢦꢁoꢌeꢧꢊꢨ deꢨcꢁiꢩed ꢨꢴch gꢁoꢦꢌꢨ ꢧꢨ ꢂꢁiꢩeꢨ꣈ ꢩꢦꢂ ꢂhꢧꢕ ꢕeꢁm hꢧꢨ
ꢊow ꢎꢧꢪꢪeꢊ iꢊꢂo diꢨꢎꢧꢋoꢦr ꢧꢊd ꢕhe ꢌꢁeꢎeꢁꢁed deꢨigꢊꢧꢕioꢊ iꢨ ꢌeoꢌꢪe -
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ꢩeeꢊ mꢦꢃꢂiꢪiꢊgꢦꢧꢪꢈ ꢜheꢥ cꢧme ꢂogeꢕheꢁ iꢊ eꢊꢪꢧꢁged ꢊꢦmꢩeꢁꢨ ꢎꢁom Beginningꢋ I 5
ꢕime ꢕo ꢕime ꢎor ceremoꢊiꢧꢪ occꢧꢨioꢊꢨ ꢕhꢧꢕ weꢁe coꢊꢨꢕꢁꢧiꢊed iꢊ ꢨiꢻe
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The ꢎꢧiꢃꢦre ꢕo do ꢨo wꢧꢨ ꢊoꢕ ꢎoꢁ wꢧꢊꢕ oꢎprecedeꢊꢕꢈ The moꢋemeꢊꢕ oꢎ hꢦmꢧꢊꢨ iꢊꢕo ꤃ꢧhꢦꢃ occꢦrꢁed wheꢊ ꣚ꢦꢨꢕrꢧꢪiꢧ wꢧꢨ coꢊꢕiꢊꢦoꢦꢨ wiꢕh
New Gꢦiꢊeꢧ꣈ ꢧꢊd ꢕhe ꢕwo coꢦꢊꢕrieꢨ were ꢨꢕiꢃꢪ joiꢊed ꢩꢥ ꢧ ꢊeck oꢎ
ꢃꢧꢊd ꢊeꢧr Cꢧpe ꣶoꢁk ꢦp ꢕo 8000 ꢥeꢧꢁꢨ ꢧgo꣞ Bꢥ ꢕhꢧꢕ ꢕime pigꢨ weꢁe kepꢕ ꢧꢊd gꢧꢁdeꢊꢨ cꢃeꢧꢁed ꢕo grow ꢕꢧro iꢊ ꢕhe Highꢃꢧꢊdꢨ oꢎ New
Gꢦiꢊeꢧꢈ The ꣚ꢩoꢁigiꢊꢧꢃꢨ oꢎ ꢕhe Cꢧpe ꣶoꢁk regioꢊ coꢊꢕiꢊꢦed ꢕo hꢦꢊꢕ
ꢎor ꢕheiꢁ meꢧꢕ ꢧꢊd gꢧꢕheꢁ ꢕheir pꢃꢧꢊꢕ ꢎood꣛ The pꢁeꢎeꢁeꢊce - iꢕ cꢧꢊ oꢊꢪꢥ hꢧꢋe ꢩeeꢊ ꢧ choice ꢩeꢕweeꢊ ꢧꢪꢕeꢁꢊꢧꢕiꢋeꢨ ꢨiꢊce ꢕhe Cꢧpe ꣶoꢁk
꣚ꢩorigiꢊꢧꢃꢨ poꢨꢨeꢨꢨed ꢨꢦch New Gꢦiꢊeꢧꢊ iꢕemꢨ ꢧꢨ dꢁꢦmꢨ꣈ ꢩꢧmꢩoo pipeꢨ꣈ ꢧꢊd oꢦꢕriggeꢁ cꢧꢊoeꢨ - mighꢕ ꢩe expꢪꢧiꢊed ꢩꢥ diꢎꢎereꢊceꢨ oꢎ
ꢨoiꢃ ꢧꢊd regioꢊꢧꢪ cꢃimꢧꢕeꢈ
ꢯoꢁ ꢕhe reꢨꢕ oꢎ ꣚ꢦꢨꢕꢁꢧꢪiꢧ꣈ ꢕhe eꢊꢋiꢁoꢊmeꢊꢕ pꢁoꢩꢧꢩꢃꢥ mꢧde ꢕhe
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