1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism and the Road to the Civil War

1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism and the Road to the Civil War

Name ______

Date ______Pd ______

1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism and the Road to the Civil War

I. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era—From 1800-1860, the North and South became vastly different regions

A. “______” had transformed the South into a rural region with ______, little manufacturing, and few railroads

B. The North had industrial ______, cities, paid immigrant workers, railroads, and larger ______

C. These regional differences increased sectionalism–placing the interests of a ______above the interests of the ______

II. 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild and resolved by compromise

A. Missouri Compromise of 1820

1. The first major issue regarding slavery in the antebellum era focused on ______becoming a state in 1820:

a.Northerners and Southerners did not want to upset the equal ______of free and slave states in the ______

b.Northerners did not want slavery to spread beyond the “______”

c. Southerners did not think Congress had the ______to stop slavery

2. In 1820, ______negotiated the Missouri Compromise: Missouri became a slave state, ______broke from Massachusetts and became a free state, Slavery was outlawed in all western territories above the latitude of ______

B. Nullification Crisis of 1832

1. In the 1830s, ______divided North and South

a. Southerners argued that tariffs benefited only the ______and made manufactured goods too ______

b. ______of SC attempted nullification and threatened ______

2. President Jackson fought this ______argument

C. The Nat Turner rebellion increased the barbarity of slavery in the South

1. In 1831, ______freed slaves on Virginia farms and killed ______whites

2.Southern whites responded by making ______more severe

D. Manifest Destiny and the Wilmot Proviso

1. ______was not annexed for 9 years because its would unbalance the number of free and slave states

2.The addition of the ______after the Mexican-American War gave Southerners hope that ______would spread to the Pacific Ocean

3.In 1846, Northern Congressmen tried to pass the ______:

a. This law would have outlawed all ______from the Mexican Cession

b.Rather than voting along party lines (Democrats and Whigs), Congressmen voting according to their ______

4. In 1848, the ______Party was formed to keep slavery from ______West

E. California and the Compromise of 1850

1.In 1850, ______asked to enter the Union as a free state:

a. Southerners did not want more free states and wanted slavery to be allowed in the ______territories

b. Northerners wanted to keep ______out of the SW and wanted other laws to protect ______who made it to freedom in the North

2. The Compromise of 1850 solved the sectional dispute between North and South: California entered as a ______, The people of Utah and New Mexico could ______to allow or ban slavery (______), The slave ______ended in Washington DC, A stronger Fugitive Slave Law was created that allowed Southerners to ______slaves in the North

F. From 1820 to 1850, sectionalism in America increased due to

1. Differences in ______and the use of slavery,Westward expansion and the entry of new states to the Union, Growing ______in the North

2. But, each time a dispute threatened the nation, a ______was reached

III. 1850-1856: The growth of abolitionism and westward expansion intensified the question of the “morality” of slavery

A. ______and many Northerners despised the Compromise of 1850:

1. The Fugitive Slave Law allowed runaway slaves (and sometimes ______) to be recaptured and enslaved

2. Northerners formed ______committees to protect runaways

3. Abolitionism grew in the North

a. ______formed the American Anti-Slavery Society and published The Liberator

b.Ex-slave Frederick Douglass published ______

c.The ______Sisters revealed that some Southerners opposed slavery

d.The Underground Railroad was a network of ______to help slaves escape to freedom

B. In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published ______

1. Depicted slavery as a ______and ______many in the North to join the abolitionist cause

2. Became the bestselling book of the 19th century

C. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

1.In 1854, Congress passed ______Kansas-Nebraska Act

a. The law used ______to give the residents of the territories the right to vote to determine slavery

b. To do this, Congress ______(ended) the Missouri Compromise line at 36º30’ in the western territories

2. Northerners were outraged by the ______Act:

a. Congress allowed ______to spread into an area where slavery was already ______

b.Northerners formed the ______Party in 1854 and became committed to the “free soil” movement

3. Popular sovereignty______to settle the slavery question in the West:

a. When a vote was held in Kansas in 1855 to decide on slavery, thousands of Missouri residents ______

b. This illegal vote gave Kansas______when its residents voted against it

c. In 1856, a ______began between KansasandMissouri (______)

D. From 1850 to 1856, sectionalism in America increased due to

1.The growth of ______due to the Fugitive Slave Law, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

2. The birth of ______(not national) political parties like the Republicans

3. Sectional tensions were becoming so bad that ______was not an option

IV. 1856-1860: The slave issue became “irreconcilable” and led to the Civil War

A. The election of 1856 was the first time in which political parties represented ______of the country, not the nation

1.______became the most important political issue in American politics

2. Even though the ______lost in 1856, they realized that they had enough electoral votes to win the presidency without ______support

B. Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)

1. In 1857, a slave named ______sued for his freedom after traveling with his master from Missouri to Wisconsin

2. The Dred Scott case presented the Supreme Court with 2 major questions: (a) Does Congress have the ______to decide on slavery in the territories? (b) Is the Missouri Compromise ______?

3.In Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), the Supreme Court ruled:

a.Dred Scott had no right to ______because blacks are not ______

b. Congress did not have the power to stop ______in western territories so the ______was ruled unconstitutional

C. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

1.In 1858, Democrat Stephen Douglas ran against Republican Abraham Lincoln for the Illinois ______

2. Lincoln was ______at the time, but during the campaign he argued that Congress must stop the spread of slavery (free soil argument); ______“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this gov’t cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.” During their campaigns, Lincoln and Douglas ______several important issues, including slavery

3. Douglas argued for the ______at the Second Debate. It said that a territory had the right to ______slavery despite ______decisions

4. Lincoln lost the Senate election, but his argument against slavery made him a popular ______figure

D. John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (1859)

1.In 1859, abolitionist ______led an unsuccessful raid on a federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, VA in an attempt to free slaves in a massive slave ______

2. Brown and his men hacked up 5 pro slavery settlers in the ______Massacre

2. Brown was caught and executed, but he was seen as a ______by many in the North

3. Southerners believed Northerners were using to ______to end slavery

E. The Election of 1860 proved to be the final straw for the South:

1. Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln who argued for “______” and a strong national government

2. Democrats in the North and South were ______over the issue of slavery: (a) Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas who argued for popular sovereignty; (b) Southern Democrats nominated John Breckenridge who argued for ______and the protection of slavery

3. Lincoln ______the election without a single ______vote; Southerners assumed slavery would soon be abolished and began to discuss the possibility of ______(breaking away) from the USA

4. In December 1860, ______became the first state to secede from the Union; In 1861, more Southern states seceded and the ______between North and South began

F.From 1856 to 1860, sectionalism in America increased due to:

1. Slavery became the most important political issue of the time

2. Growing Southern ______that the North would end slavery (John Brown’s raid, election of Lincoln)

3. No ______could prevent a Civil War between the North and South